Business ethics levels
Level 1- assumes an awareness of moral and ethical implications of business decisions or
actions. This may not be the case, as some managers behave in an amoral manner. Managers
with an amoral approach to ethics disregard all moral responsibilities when making decisions. In
order to assess ethical implications there must be an awareness of ethics.
Level 2- most commonly used by managers and most individuals. Value judgments of purpose
and moral standards of behaviour; decisions or actions based on influences.
Level 3- represents a more systematic analysis or assessment of ethical implications. The
assessment is based on the use of fundamental ethical principles to evaluate the outcomes
from decisions or corporate actions. A conscious effort is made to identify and analyse the
distribution of benefits and harms to all stakeholders affected.
Value judgements- subjective evaluations of what is considered important, based on how
managers intuitively feel about the goodness or rightness of various goals
Moral standards- the means by which individuals judge their actions and the actions of others,
based upon accepted behaviour in society
Influences on ethical behaviour
- Influences of individuals
- Corporate or organizational influences
- Economic efficiency influences
- Gov’t and legal system influences
- Societal influences
Ethical relativism- ethical answers depend on the situation; no universal st