AGST 1000 Lecture Notes - Siltation, Fire Regime, Neolithic Revolution

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Published on 12 Oct 2012
School
Course
Emergence of Agriculture
September 12
The spread of humans
- Earliest stages of human evolution took place in Africa. Distinct evolution of humans around
7 million years ago.
- Substantially upright 4 million years ago
- Increase in body size 2.5 million years ago
- Homo erectus 1.7 million years ago
- Homo Sapiens 500,000 years ago
-
Where did settled agriculture emerge?
Why did settled agriculture emerge?
- A number of factors interacted: Population pressure on resources: Animals and territory for
hunting becoming scarce
- A reduced return for labor
- Climate volatility (becoming warmer and dryer) changed the environment, large animals
went up the mountains and crops did as well.
- Growing crops and domestic herds of sheep and goat increased food security.
- Increased productivity of the land, of the young and the old in the community.
What is “The Neolithic Revolution”
- The adoption of early farming techniques, crop cultivation, and the domestication of
animals.
- An increased tendency to live in permantent or semi-permanent settlements.
- New deveolpemts in social organization(hierarchy and priests) and in technology (tools,
storage)
- The development of land ownership, rather than agreement on usufruct rights to hunting
territory
- An increased reliance on vegetable and cereal food in the total diet.
- “Trading economies” that use surplus production from increasing crop yields.
“Founder Crops”
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Document Summary

Earliest stages of human evolution took place in africa. Increase in body size 2. 5 million years ago. A number of factors interacted: population pressure on resources: animals and territory for hunting becoming scarce. Climate volatility (becoming warmer and dryer) changed the environment, large animals went up the mountains and crops did as well. Growing crops and domestic herds of sheep and goat increased food security. Increased productivity of the land, of the young and the old in the community. The adoption of early farming techniques, crop cultivation, and the domestication of animals. An increased tendency to live in permantent or semi-permanent settlements. New deveolpemts in social organization(hierarchy and priests) and in technology (tools, storage) The development of land ownership, rather than agreement on usufruct rights to hunting territory. An increased reliance on vegetable and cereal food in the total diet. Trading economies that use surplus production from increasing crop yields. Ecnomonies where founder crops were adapted, prospered and trade followed.

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