BIOL 1010 Lecture Notes - Beta-Carotene, Picea Engelmannii, Light-Independent Reactions

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18 Oct 2012
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- Carbon fixation- the process of incorporating Co2into organic molecules
- The Calvin cycle reaction does not require light directly, but reduction of CO2 to sugar requires
the products of the light reactions:
o NADPH provides the reducing power
o ATP provides the chemical energy
- The light reactions use solar energy to make ATP (chemical
energy) and NADPH (power reduction). ATP produced in the light
reactions of photosynthesis is only dedicated to drive the Calvin
cycle.
- The Calvin cycle incorporates CO2 into organic molecules which
are converted to sugar
- Thylakoid membranes are the rights of the light reactions
- The Calvin cycle occurs in the stroma
The Nature of Light
- 1. The nature of sunlight
o Sunlight is electromagnetic energy. The quantum mechanical model of electromagnetic
radiation describes light as having a behavior that is both wavelike and particle like
- A) Wavelike particle of light
o Electromagnetic energy is a form of energy that travels in rhythmic waves that are
disturbances of electric and magnetic fields.
- B) Particle like properties of light
o Light also behaves as if it consists of discrete particles or quanta called photons.
o Each photon has a fixed quantity of energy which is inversely proportional to the
wavelength of light
o For example, a photon of violet light has nearly twice as much energy as a photon of red
light.
- White light is separated into different colors (wavelengths) of light by passing through a
prism
- Wavelength is defined as the distance from peak to peak (or trough to trough)
- The energy is inversely proportional to the wavelength: longer wavelengths have less
energy than do shorter ones.
- The order of colors is determined by the wavelength of light
- Visible light is one small part of the electromagnetic spectrum
- The longer the wavelength of visible light, the more red the color
- Likewise the shorter wavelengths are toward the violet
side of the spectrum
- Wavelengths longer than red are referred to as infrared,
while those shorter than violet are ultraviolet
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