BIOL 1010 Lecture Notes - Beta-Carotene, Picea Engelmannii, Light-Independent Reactions

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18 Oct 2012
- Carbon fixation- the process of incorporating Co2into organic molecules
- The Calvin cycle reaction does not require light directly, but reduction of CO2 to sugar requires
the products of the light reactions:
o NADPH provides the reducing power
o ATP provides the chemical energy
- The light reactions use solar energy to make ATP (chemical
energy) and NADPH (power reduction). ATP produced in the light
reactions of photosynthesis is only dedicated to drive the Calvin
- The Calvin cycle incorporates CO2 into organic molecules which
are converted to sugar
- Thylakoid membranes are the rights of the light reactions
- The Calvin cycle occurs in the stroma
The Nature of Light
- 1. The nature of sunlight
o Sunlight is electromagnetic energy. The quantum mechanical model of electromagnetic
radiation describes light as having a behavior that is both wavelike and particle like
- A) Wavelike particle of light
o Electromagnetic energy is a form of energy that travels in rhythmic waves that are
disturbances of electric and magnetic fields.
- B) Particle like properties of light
o Light also behaves as if it consists of discrete particles or quanta called photons.
o Each photon has a fixed quantity of energy which is inversely proportional to the
wavelength of light
o For example, a photon of violet light has nearly twice as much energy as a photon of red
- White light is separated into different colors (wavelengths) of light by passing through a
- Wavelength is defined as the distance from peak to peak (or trough to trough)
- The energy is inversely proportional to the wavelength: longer wavelengths have less
energy than do shorter ones.
- The order of colors is determined by the wavelength of light
- Visible light is one small part of the electromagnetic spectrum
- The longer the wavelength of visible light, the more red the color
- Likewise the shorter wavelengths are toward the violet
side of the spectrum
- Wavelengths longer than red are referred to as infrared,
while those shorter than violet are ultraviolet
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