# BIOL 2000 Lecture Notes - Rubik'S Revenge, Peptide, Heme

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Published on 12 Apr 2013
School
Department
Course
Chapter 9-2
Tertiary structure
The overall 3D shape of the entire protein
o Globular proteins
Has alpha-helical regions coming together in 3D
space
Where does a small molecule bind?
o Heme
Where are the precise positions of the atoms in 3D
space
o We will know exactly what it is made up of
Quaternary structure
Several proteins coming together
Intercations between multiple polypeptides
Hemoglobin complex
o For oxygen transport
o Four separate polypeptides for the complex
2 of each alpha and beta
Heterotetramer
dimer
o 2
tetramer
o 4
Homo-
o identical subunits
Hetero-
o different subunits (different polypeptides)
The genetic code
How id the sequence in DNA eventually converted into linear amino acid
sequence (primary structure of proteins?
o How is the mRNA template read?
1) How many nucleotides specify one amino acid in a protein?
Condon
Length of mRNA sequence that specifies one amino acid
Codon length possibilities
o 1 nt= 4 combinations (4 amino acids)
o 2 nt = 4x4 = 16 amino acids
o 3 nt = 4x4x4 = 64 amino acids (maximally)
only need 20 to specify
Codons are 3 nt long
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## Document Summary

The overall 3d shape of the entire protein: globular proteins. Has alpha-helical regions coming together in 3d space. Where does a small molecule bind: heme. Where are the precise positions of the atoms in 3d space: we will know exactly what it is made up of. Intercations between multiple polypeptides: for oxygen transport, four separate polypeptides for the complex. Length of mrna sequence that specifies one amino acid. Codon length possibilities: 1 nt= 4 combinations (4 amino acids, 2 nt = 4x4 = 16 amino acids, 3 nt = 4x4x4 = 64 amino acids (maximally) How are codons read: overlapping genetic code. One nt affects amino acid composition at more then one position: non-overlapping. Each nt is only part of one codon: dependent on the reader. Does it shift by 3 nt or by 1 nt: a shift in one nt will affet 3 amino acids in overlapping, only 1 in non- overlapping.

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