Class Notes (834,353)
Canada (508,492)
Biology (116)
BIOL 1010 (39)
Lecture

Chap 4 - Organic Chemistry.docx

4 Pages
46 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 1010
Professor
Brent Sellinger
Semester
Fall

Description
Reece et al. 9 Edition Chapter 4 1 Page Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life Organic chemistry - the study of carbon compounds Recall • the electron configuration of an atom determines the kind and number of bonds that an atom can form - valence electrons (outer shell electrons) determine the number of bonds and the arrangement of the bonds. This is important in molecular shape. Major elements Valence (i.e., bonding capacity) Hydrogen - H 1 Oxygen - O 2 Nitrogen - N 3 Carbon - C 4 Sulfur Phosphorus On your own review the following concepts related to Organic Chemistry and the Origin of Life Vitalism: Abiotic synthesis of organic compounds: Shift of the mainstream of biological thought from vitalism to mechanism: CHON’s I. The diversity of carbon compounds is related to the following: A. Acarbon atom has 4 valence electrons and does not tend to form ionic bonds through gaining or losing electrons to complete its valence shell. Carbon atoms tend to form covalent bonds and with 4 valence electrons (tetravalence) it makes a good junction molecule. B. Carbon compounds may contain one or more carbon atoms (i.e., The atoms bonded to carbon atoms may vary) e.g., methane (CH )4 carbon dioxide (CO ) 2 urea (CO(NH ) )2 2 Glucose (C H6O 12 6 2 Proteins, DNA… e.g., hydrocarbons contain only carbon and hydrogen atoms What are some properties of hydrocarbons? C. Carbon atoms can form a variety of different carbon skeletons 1) The carbon skeletons may vary in i) length, ii) shape (branched, ring) and iii) type of bonds (single, double or triple) e.g., Length Shape # of Bonds methane butane/ ethane (C 2 6 ethane isobutane ethane (C 2 4 propane acetylene (C H ) 2 2 butane glucose pentane hexane 2) The same number of atoms may be arranged in a variety of ways. Isomers - same molecular formula but different structure Types of isomers i) structural - differ in covalent arrangement of atoms and of double bonds e.g., a) C4 10 - butane and isobutane b) Ahydrocarbon chain of 8 carbons - change position of the double bond in the chain ii) cis-trans or Geometric - same arrangement of covalent bonds but differ in spatial arrangement due to inflexibility of double bonds • Double bonds are inflexible and can't rotate freely like single bonds. This results in cis and trans configurations in molecules. iii) Enantiome
More Less

Related notes for BIOL 1010

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit