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Chap 4 - Organic Chemistry.docx

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BIOL 1010
Brent Sellinger

Reece et al. 9 Edition Chapter 4 1 Page Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life Organic chemistry - the study of carbon compounds Recall • the electron configuration of an atom determines the kind and number of bonds that an atom can form - valence electrons (outer shell electrons) determine the number of bonds and the arrangement of the bonds. This is important in molecular shape. Major elements Valence (i.e., bonding capacity) Hydrogen - H 1 Oxygen - O 2 Nitrogen - N 3 Carbon - C 4 Sulfur Phosphorus On your own review the following concepts related to Organic Chemistry and the Origin of Life Vitalism: Abiotic synthesis of organic compounds: Shift of the mainstream of biological thought from vitalism to mechanism: CHON’s I. The diversity of carbon compounds is related to the following: A. Acarbon atom has 4 valence electrons and does not tend to form ionic bonds through gaining or losing electrons to complete its valence shell. Carbon atoms tend to form covalent bonds and with 4 valence electrons (tetravalence) it makes a good junction molecule. B. Carbon compounds may contain one or more carbon atoms (i.e., The atoms bonded to carbon atoms may vary) e.g., methane (CH )4 carbon dioxide (CO ) 2 urea (CO(NH ) )2 2 Glucose (C H6O 12 6 2 Proteins, DNA… e.g., hydrocarbons contain only carbon and hydrogen atoms What are some properties of hydrocarbons? C. Carbon atoms can form a variety of different carbon skeletons 1) The carbon skeletons may vary in i) length, ii) shape (branched, ring) and iii) type of bonds (single, double or triple) e.g., Length Shape # of Bonds methane butane/ ethane (C 2 6 ethane isobutane ethane (C 2 4 propane acetylene (C H ) 2 2 butane glucose pentane hexane 2) The same number of atoms may be arranged in a variety of ways. Isomers - same molecular formula but different structure Types of isomers i) structural - differ in covalent arrangement of atoms and of double bonds e.g., a) C4 10 - butane and isobutane b) Ahydrocarbon chain of 8 carbons - change position of the double bond in the chain ii) cis-trans or Geometric - same arrangement of covalent bonds but differ in spatial arrangement due to inflexibility of double bonds • Double bonds are inflexible and can't rotate freely like single bonds. This results in cis and trans configurations in molecules. iii) Enantiome
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