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Lec 10-12 basic chem of macromoleules .docx

13 Pages

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BIOL 1010
Igor Kovalchuk

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Basic Organic Chemistry of Important Macromolecules Lecture 1012Structure 1 What are the organic molecules 2 Polymer Principles 3 Carbohydrates Fuel and Building Material 4 Lipids Diverse Hydrophobic Molecules 5 Proteins The Molecular Tools of the Cell 6 Nucleic Acids informational Polymers 1 Organic MoleculesOrganic molecules are those that o Formed by the actions of living things andor o Have a carbon backboneCarbon has four electrons in outer shell and can bond with up to four other atoms usually H O N and CSince carbon can make covalent bonds with another carbon atom carbon chains and rings that serve as the backbones of organic molecules are possibleChemical bonds store energy The CC covalent bonds has 831 Kcal per mole while the CC double covalent bond has 147kcalmoleEnergy is in two forms oE or energy in usemotion ko E or energy at rest or in storage chemical bonds p Chemical bonds are potential energy until they are converted into another form of energy according to law of thermodynamicsMethane CH is an example of this 4o If we remove the H from one of the methane units and begin linking them up while removing other H units we begin to form an organic molecule o NOTE Not all methane is organically derived methane is a major component of the atmosphere of Jupiter which we think of as devoid life o When the two methanes are combined the resultant molecule is Ethane CH 26 Molecules made of H and C are knownas hydrocarbonsThe shapes of three simple organic moleculesWhenever a carbon atom has four single bonds the bonds angle toward the corners of an imaginary tetrahedronWhen two carbons are joined by a double bond all bonds around those atoms are in the same planeVariations in carbon skeletonsCarbon skeletons can vary in lengthSkeletons may be branched or unbranchedThe skeleton may have double bonds which can vary in locationSome carbon skeletons are arranged in rings The abbreviated structural formulas omit the corner carbons and the hydrogens attached to them Three types of isomersCompounds with the same molecular formula but different structuresIsomers are a source of diversity in organic moleculeso Structural isomers variation in covalent partners o Geometric isomers variation in arrangement about a double bondo Enantiomers variation in spatial arrangement around an asymmetric carbon resulting in molecules that are mirror images like right and left hands Enantiomers cannot be superimposed on each other
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