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Lec 20- Photosynthesis-2

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BIOL 1010
Igor Kovalchuk

- Carbon fixation- the process of incorporating Co in2o organic molecules - The Calvin cycle reaction does not require light directly, but reduction of CO t2 sugar requires the products of the light reactions: o NADPH provides the reducing power o ATP provides the chemical energy - The light reactions use solar energy to make ATP (chemical energy) and NADPH (power reduction). ATP produced in the light reactions of photosynthesis is only dedicated to drive the Calvin cycle. - The Calvin cycle incorporates CO into organic molecules which 2 are converted to sugar - Thylakoid membranes are the rights of the light reactions - The Calvin cycle occurs in the stroma The Nature of Light - 1. The nature of sunlight o Sunlight is electromagnetic energy. The quantum mechanical model of electromagnetic radiation describes light as having a behavior that is both wavelike and particle like - A) Wavelike particle of light o Electromagnetic energy is a form of energy that travels in rhythmic waves that are disturbances of electric and magnetic fields. - B) Particle like properties of light o Light also behaves as if it consists of discrete particles or quanta called photons. o Each photon has a fixed quantity of energy which is inversely proportional to the wavelength of light o For example, a photon of violet light has nearly twice as much energy as a photon of red light. - White light is separated into different colors (wavelengths) of light by passing through a prism - Wavelength is defined as the distance from peak to peak (or trough to trough) - The energy is inversely proportional to the wavelength: longer wavelengths have less energy than do shorter ones. - The order of colors is determined by the wavelength of light - Visible light is one small part of the electromagnetic spectrum - The longer the wavelength of visible light, the more red the color - Likewise the shorter wavelengths are toward the violet side of the spectrum - Wavelengths longer than red are referred to as infrared, while those shorter than violet are ultraviolet Interactions of light with matter in a chloroplast - Light may be reflected, transmitted or absorbed when it contacts matter - A pigment is any substance that absorbs lights - Different pigments absorb different wavelengths of light - The absorption spectrum for pigment in solution can be determined by using a spectrophotometer o An instrument used to measure what proportion of a specific wavelength of light is absorbed or transmitted by the pigment Absorption and action spectra for photosynthesis - A) A comparison of the absorption spectra for chlorophyll a and accessory
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