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Bio1020, Diversity of Life: February 5.docx

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BIOL 1020
Robert Laird

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February 5, 2014 – Biology Prokaryotes: • Most dominant organism on earth Allow cells have • Plasma membrane • Semifluid substance called cytosol (water, ions, molecules) • Chromosomes (carry genes) • Ribosomes (make protein) Prokaryotic cells have • No nucleus • DNA in an unbounded region called the nucleoid • No member-bound organelles • Cytoplasm bound by the plasma membrane Fig. 6-6 Other characteristics of prokaryotes • Small size (typically unicellular) • Ability to withstand harsh environments • Enormous reproductive potential in favorable habitats • High level of genetic variation o Rapid reproduction (mutation, no gametes, no sperm, ect.) o High rates of mutation o Genetic recombination  e.g. the phenomenon of conjugation • modes of nutrition far greater in prokaryotes than eukaryotes o e.g. nitrogen fixers (Rhizobim –fix inorganic nitrogen) o e.g. carbon fixers (cyanobacteria) o e.g. chemical fixers (deep sea vent communities) • These general characteristics help explain the enormous impact that prokaryotes have on human society Evolution of the eukaryotic cell: • Properties of the eukaryotic cell o Nuclear envelope (nucleus has a membrane) o Mitochondria o Other organelles o Cytoskeleton (give it rigidity) • How did eukaryotic cells originate? Figure 25.9 o Serial endosymbiosis theory of the origin of the eukaryotic cell: favored with ancestral photosynthetic eukaryote. Highly effect at taking energy from the sun o Key evidence supporting SET:  similarities in inner membrane structures and functions between organelles and prokaryotes  cell division is similar in these organelles and some prokaryotes  These org
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