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Bio1020, Diversity of Life: January 27.docx

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BIOL 1020
Robert Laird

January 27, 2014 – Biology Exam 1: next week. Homologies: key for making ancestry tree • Similarity in characteristics resulting from a shared ancestry o Wings have developed independently, but within a group they are homologies (dragonfly, hummingbirds, flying fish, bats) o Similarity in complex structures (human arm, cat leg, whale fine, bat wing) o Similarity in developmental pattern o Molecular similarity (genes and other regions of DNA, shared ancestry) • Problem: analogy (aka homoplaisy) o Similarity resulting from convergent evolution rather than ancestry Convergent Evolution: • Evolution of similar, or analogous, features in distantly related groups • Analogous traits arise when groups independently adapt to similar environments in similar ways • Does not provide information about ancestry. o Examples: sugar glider (marsupial, from Australia) Flying squirrel (North America). Not closely related at all. Similar because they live in similar environments • Convergence and mimicry: evolve to mimic others (plants and animals) Phylogeny: • Shifting from the process of evolution to the pattern of evolution • Phylogeny: is the evolutionary history of a species or group of related species (reality) • Systematics: classifies organisms according to their evolutionary relationships o Systematists use fossil, molecular, and genetic date to infer evolutionary relationship, make the classification that is discovered by phylogeny. • Taxonomy: is the ordered division and naming of organisms. Understand their phylogeny by their name. o in 1700, Linnaeus published a system of taxonomy based on resemblances o two key features of his system remain useful today: two-part names for species and hierarchical classification  two-part names for species, binomial: first is the genus, second part is the specific epithet, ex: Ba humbugii (snail)  Hierarchical classification: contained within the higher order, same family has the same genus • A taxonomic uni
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