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Bio1020: Diversity of Life, March 10.docx

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BIOL 1020
Robert Laird

March 10, 2014 – Biology Angiosperm phylogeny: • 140 million years ago, late Mesozoic, • Do not fully understand how angiosperms originated from other seed plants • Archaefructus sinensis Chinese fossils of 125-million-year-old angiosperms share some traits with living angiosperms but lack others (lacks petals and sepals) • Diversity >250,000 living species • Previously, angiosperms were divided into two main groups o Monocots (one cotyledon) o Dicots (two cotyledons) • DNA studies suggest that monocots form a clade, but dicots are polyphyletic • The clade eudicot (true dicots) includes most dicots • The rest of the former dicots form several small lineages o Basal angiosperms are less derived and include the flowering plants belonging to the oldest lineages. Water lilies, star anise, amborella o Magnoliids share some traits with basal angiosperms but evolved later. Magnoliids, monocots, eudicots. Main groups of angiosperms • Diversity: o Basal angiosperms:  Only about 100 species in total (out of 250K angiosperms)  Amborella: most basal species of known angiosperms, diverged ~140 million years ago • Small shrug/tree • Amborella does not have vessels (less efficient water transport)  Water lilies • 60+ species in 8 genera • Rooted in bottom of water bodies • Leaves/flowers float  Star anise: • ~42 species • Asia, north America • Anise flavor (similar to licorice)  Magnoliids • >8000 species • More closely related to monocots and eudicots than basal angiosperms • Nutmeg, avocados, ect. o Monocots and Eudicots
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