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Chapter 5-1.docx

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BIOL 2000
Joseph Rasmussen

Chapter 5- Genetics of Bacteria and their Viruses Introduction  How do bacteria transfer DNA to other cells? o Bacteriophage  Attaches to the outside of cell, injects their DNA into the cell o Conjugation  Cell to cell contact  Fruits of DNA technology made possible by bacterial genetics o Modern gene cloning techniques  Propagation of human DNA fragments into E.Coli Bacteria  Dividing bacterial cells o Rapid exponential growth o Easy to replicate in small time frame o Looks for rare mutations easily (as it is so fast to replicate)  Properties of Bacteria o Single celled o Prokaryotic (no nucleus or membrane bound organelles o Have only 1 circular chromosome  Haploid  DNA replication will occur  Cell division will occur o Resulting in two identical daughter cells  Identical to each other and parent provided there are no mutations  Colonial expansion- continual rounds of DNA replication o Do not undergo meiosis  Recombination?  Can bacteria still have an output that is different in genotype from parental input?  Separation and visualization of bacterial cells with different genotypes and phenotypes o Suspension of bacterial cells o Suspension is then spread on petri plate with agar gel o Incubation for 1-2 days o Visible colonies (each a clone of the corresponding single cell)  Single cells are not visible to naked eye o All the colonies will have the same genotype o Each different colony will have different genotypes as they are a new combination of inputs  Most (wild-type strain) are prototrophic o Grow on minimal media  Auxotrophic mutants require additional nutrient supplements o Amino acids, vitamins, etc o Referred to as a negative strain (bio- if needs biotin added as a supplement to minimal medium) Bacterial selection  In an experiment choose medium that allows minimal growth o E.Coli cells are deficient in producing adenine (ad-) o E.Coli cells that can produce adenine (ad +)  We only want to grow ad+, so we cannot supplement the growth medium with adenine.  So select only ad+ we will grow on adenine lacking agar plate Can recombination occur in bacteria?  Lederberg ad Tatum (1946)  If we took two E.Coli cells that have two genotypes, will we result in a differen
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