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Biology 3300- Kin Selection

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University of Lethbridge
BIOL 3300
Theresa Burg

Biology 3th0 Mar.7 **Midterm covers material from Feb.3 -Mar.5 th Kin Selection  occurs when natural selection favors the spread of alleles that increase the indirect fitness - Possible individual interactions Donor Recipient Evolution Co-operation/mutualism + + Yes Selfishness + - Yes Spite - - No Altruism - + ? - Altruism  evolution? Depending on the individuals involved, depending on the cost and the benefit. It could evolve, it could not. - How can altruism exist if the individual carrying the altruistic allele has reduced fitness? o Because there could be increased inclusive fitness Inclusive fitness  includes both direct and indirect fitness - What is selfless act by donor increases fitness of its kin? - Hamilton’s rule  allele for altruistic behavior will spread if: o r > C/B where r=relatedness, C=cost, B=benefits. If r is less than the C/B ratio then it won’t spread o Coefficient of relatedness (r) = probability that homologous alleles in two individuals are identical by descent (similar to inbreeding coefficient) Prairie Dogs - Alarm calling o 2 different types:  Trill  attack of land animal  Whistle  attack of air animal (hawk) o Those that call will have a higher chance of being attacked o Expected  amount of time they spend above the ground o Why do females call more than males?  Females within the colony are also related to each other  They have a larger number of family members in the colony  The males move between colonies to mate  2% killed with whistle  28% killed without whistle  ^^selfish  8% killed with trill  4% killed without trill  ^^ altruism - They do adjust the alarm calls based on how related the individuals are Bee-eaters - Offspring help raise next generation o In animals it occurs when resources limited - Colonial 40-450 individuals/colony with subgroups in colony o Non-breeders pair with members of the group o All non-breeders help raise young in subgroup o Who do the helpers help? - Helpers help raise the offspring even if the offspring aren’t there’s. Helpers will help even when there are limited resources. - Natal  those born in that same subgroup - In-law  born in another group and moved in o More likely to help when born in the same subgroup o More likely to help a relative o Over 50% of offspring die before they fledge o The more helpers, the more offspring that can be fledged Need to be able to recognize kin, but how? - Phenotype matching imprint on parent’s traits - “recognition” genes: ex. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) produce odor c
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