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Lecture

Biology 3300- Genetic Variation

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Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 3300
Professor
Theresa Burg
Semester
Spring

Description
Biology 3300 Jan.17 th Measuring Genetic Variation Summary statistics: - Haplotype diversity - Allelic diversity o Heterozygosity (expected)  Ex: 3 loci (A, B, C). 2alleles/locus 2  h exp 1 – Ʃx (x is the frequency of each allele at one locus) Aa BB cc Aa Bc cc AA bb CC AA bb Cc 0.5 0.25 0.25  observed heterozygosity 2 A = 6/8 = 0.75 h exp 1 – Ʃx 2 2 a = 2/8 = 0.25 = 1 – (0.75 + 0.25 ) = 1 – 0.625 = 0.375 B = 3/8 = 0.375 hexp= 1 – Ʃx2 b = 5/8 = 0.625 = 1 – (0.375 + 0.625 ) = 1 – 0.53125 = 0.470 C = 3/8 = 0.375 same as above c = 5/8 = 0.625 hexp= 0.470 Polymorphism: multiple alleles at a single locus Classical model: mutations good or bad, low levels of polymorphism (model not believed to be true) Balance/selectionist model: natural selection maintains alleles, lots of polymorphism, and lots of variation Neutral model: alleles functionally and selectively equivalent, drift Northern and southern elephant seals have different histories: - hunted/harvest for their blubber - northern ones harvested at larger numbers - Because of this, the northern seals began to take on the bottleneck and their genes began to decrease - 7 individuals pre-bottleneck, 5 haplotypes present - 2 haplotypes present after bottleneck, genetic variation lost Phenotypic variation - What determines phenotype? o Genotype  Incomplete dominance o Environment
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