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CHEM 2310 (1)
John Ng (1)

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University of Lethbridge
CHEM 2310
John Ng

Bio-Chem Notes 5/8/2013 12:44:00 PM Chemistry – is the study of matters and its changes Matter – is anything that has mass and volume History of matter – Thales to Aristotle … Four types of matter, joined by 4 principles. Thomas Jefferson and everyone for 2 thousand years subscribed to this idea. Hot Air moist Fire Water Dry Earth cold Chapter 1 – The Air we breathe Clean Air – The composition of Our air Nitrogen 78 percent Oxygen 21 Percent Other Gasses 1 Percent - Even though air might smell different, it will still only be less than one percent ambient air - To be considered air, we have to be able to breathe it.  Matter Pure Substance Mixture Air is a mixture So what is a pure substance? – Only one type of item. So a mixture is comprised of pure substances.  Comprised of molecular oxygen  Mollecular Nitrogen, etc. - 78 percent really just means 78 parts per hundred.  -Is nitrogen (molecular)  21 percent / pph – is molecular oxygen  1 pph others o Nitrogen remains unchanged when we breathe, because our bodies don’t have the ability to change molecular nitrogen – we get our nitrogen from food. o Nitrogen is neccesarily as a basic building block for amino acids. Required to make us “who we are” is the presence of nitrogen. o Typical composition of inhaled and exhaled air substance Inhaled Air Exhaled air Nitrogen 78 78 Oxygen 21 16 Argon 0.9 0.9 Carbon Dioxide 0.04 4.0 Water Vapor Variable Variable - Concentration Terms 1.2  Parts per Hundred (Percent) o Atmosphere is 21 % oxygen = 21 oxygen molecules per 100 molecules and atoms in air  Parts per million (ppm) Midday ozone levels reach about 0.4 ppm 0.4 ozone molecules 1 x 10^6 molecules and atomos in air - So our units are not appropriate to describe the concentration of this pollutant - So we have to look in terms of billions of mollecules. Carbon Dioxide 0.0390 pph -- so pph doesn’t work well for gasses that are below one percent. 0.0390 – parts per thousand -- 0.390 ppthousand 0.390 ppthousand 3.90pp ten thousand - - - 390 ppm ??? in ppb?  Parts per billion (ppb) o Sulfur dioxide in the air should not exceed 30 ppb o 30 sulfur dioxide molecules o 1x10^9 molecules and atoms in air  Basically like working wi
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