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University of Lethbridge
HIST 2500
Harriet Edwards

British History Prehistoric and Roman Britain - First arrivals were Stone Age hunters - Stonehenge - Last prehistoric invaders were Celts o Spoke Brythonic  Words Britain and British o Changed the countryside o Rectangular fields o Ditches, walls o Iron and tin - Boudicca o Pg. 19 o Resists Rome o First British hero to defend against an invader - The Roman Empire o At its height, included Britain o Britain was a mystical, far away land o Julius Cesar contacts the Celts with an invasion in Aug 55BCE  Protracted Roman conquest and occupation o By C1st and mid C2nd Roman architecture, road systems  Attempt to introduce Roman culture to Britain o As barbarians invaded, the empire was indefensible and the troops in Britain were recalled to defend Rome - Life in Roman Britain o Pop. Est 2, perhaps 4-6 million o Ruled by governors o Standing army approx. 60 000 o Hundreds of cities built o Economy based on farming and iron o Slavery o Little or no history of religion  Pagan worship - Hadrian’s Wall o Built after 122AD o Emperor Hadrian o 80 mile boundary marking the border between Roman territory and the Pictish North  Intended to control flow of goods and people - First half of the C4th o “Golden age” of Roman Britain  Spread of Christianity after the Edict of Milan - Roman Economy o Agriculture o Mining  Copper  Gold  Iron  Tin  Silver - Decline and Fall o Life menaced by Germanic barbarians who raided the coast o Roman villas and cities fell into decay after 410 o Iron industry collapsed o Situation becomes lost during the reign of Emp. Honorius (395-423) o Roman rule was always weak  Small ruling class  Large garrison o Roman Empire in decline  Britain attacked by  Celts from Ireland  Picts from Scotland  Saxons from Europe o By 401, Roman troops withdrawn to defend Italy from Goths o Rome sacked in 410  Britain left to defend itself o By mid C5th all direct links to Britain broken o Romans made few permanent contributions to British civ  Survival of Christianity The Anglo-Saxon Era 410-1066 - Angles from Schleswig, Holstein - Saxons from region between Elbe and Rhine - Jutes from Jutland, modern Denmark - Celts, Welsh, Irish and Cornish pushed back - Primitive fundamentals - Not ruled as a unified country - 12 different Anglo-Saxon kingdoms - 7 survive, one becoming dominant o Bretwald (paramount king) - Kingdom of Wessex established approx 800 o King Egbert - Revival of Christianity o Introduced by Romans o Lost during barbarian invasions o Anglo-Saxons worshiped Pagan gods  Thor  Woden o Monks preserve Christianity o Pope Gregory I begins to revive Christianity  Sends St. Augustine on a mission to England o King Ethelbert converted and baptized - Viking Raids o Minor attacks in the south o Attracted by the wealth of monasteries o Massive attacks starting in North Umbria and moved south - Alfred the Great r. 871-899 o Battle of Edgeington o Retook Wessex o Controlled Mercia, East Anglia o Divided England into shires o Unified the legal system o Tried to establish a single written language  Monasteries were to keep a chronicle o Developed defensive maneuvers  Constructed defensive boroughs (burhs)  Tried to engage the Vikings at sea, failed o Thought that he was a scholar  Translated books from Latin  Ecclesiastic History of the English Peoples  Written by the Venerable Bard  Tried to ensure all Lords and members of his court were literate o Since the Vikings were attacking monasteries, Alfred is seen as a defender of Christianity o When the Viking leader was converted a peace treaty was signed  Danes controlled North (Danelaw)  Alfred controlled South including London  Gave Alfred time to build up his army and fortify his territory o Dies 899  Series of successors re-conquer Danelaw - Edgar the Peaceful r. 959-975 - Reign of Ethelred the Unready o 982 Vikings sack London o 1012 Vikings kill Archbishop of Canterbury o Dies at the same time as his successor o Witan royal council chooses new king - Witan chooses a Dane as King o Cnut (Canute) r. 1016-1035 o Accepted Anglo-Saxon laws o Relatively peaceful rule - Edward the Confessor o Very religion o Unsettled ruled o Constructed Westminster Abbey  Mostly completed in 1065 o Edward dies in early 1066 o Had no heir - Last years of Anglo-Saxon rule was unstable o No clear successors to the King o Two major claimants to the throne  Goodwin’s sons  Earl of Wessex  Harold  Tostig  William Duke of Normandy  Related to Anglo-Saxon kings  Edward the Confessor promised him the throne  Claim by right of conquest  People back him  Claims Harold swore on a box of relics that William would become king  Harold Godwinson crowned king by the Witan  Tostig joins with Harold Haddrade to overthrow Harold  Tostig killed o William crosses the channel while Harold is engaged in the north o Battle of Hastings 1066  By the time Harold reaches the battlefield his troops are exhausted  William the Conqueror crowned King in Westminster Abbey - Anglo-Saxon Society o Primogeniture o Coronation ceremonies o By the 8 Century church and state merge  Consecrate Kings to the service of God o Shires o Legal system of compurgation (calling of oath-helpers)  Trial by ordeal  Financial compensation for wrongs o People are called coerls/churls  Mostly farmers  Free to live wherever they wish  Subject to Lords o Serfs  Workers who are bound to a piece of land o Sokemen in Danelaw  Free peasants  10% were slaves o Early feudal principals o Economy  Farming wheat, rye, oats  Plow and oxen used  Trade  Wood  Cloth  Cheese  Glassware  Wine  Slaves o Women  Free to marry who they liked  Women could inherit land  Nuns o Intellectual and artistic life  Monasteries are centers for knowledge  Were hospitals, orphanages, helped people  Historical records  Built many churches, few survive today  Music  Poetry and art Chapter 3 - Important Sections o Early Middle Ages 1066-1290 Ch. 3  Battle of Hastings  Domesday Battle of 1086  Expansion of the feudal system  Thomas Beckett  Henry II  Richard the Lionhearted - Crusades  Robin Hood  Prince John  Magna Carta 1215/the Baron’s War  Devment of Parl  Church/religion  Economy  Lifein medieval Britain - Battle of Hastings o William Duke of Normandy o Claimed that Edward promised him the throne o Took advantage of fighting between the Goodwin brothers o No opposition on initial landing o Breakdown in discipline amongst Saxon troops o William is victorious o Harold is killed o William uses stirrup cavalry archers o Once Harold is killed Anglo-Saxon resistance crumbled - Norman Rule o French language o William entrenches the feudal system o Strips Anglo-Saxons of land titles o Fief  Land granted by the King for service to the crown  Recipient of the land is a vassal o Anglo-Saxon Lords displaced o Small number of Normans trying to control the Anglo-Saxons - Hierarchy o The Pope o The King o Nobles  Owned land o Warriors and knights  Hold judicial and police powers  Vassals of the King  Tenant-in-chief  Fealty o Mesne (meen) Tenants  Vassals who did not hold their land directly from the King  Villeins worked the land o Freemen or Yeomen  Freeman owns his own farm o Servants o Peasants and Serfs  Laboured for the wealth of others  Lived and worked on the manor  Required to give a portion of their produce to the lord  Serfs could not be bought or sold  Serfs were permanently attached to a piece of land o Within the Church  Pope  Cardinals  Elect the Pope  Archbishops  Bishops  Urban Priests  Cathedral Canons  Court Clerks  Parish Priests o Regular Clergy  Orders of Monks  Usually lived apart from the world  Vows of  Poverty  Obedience  Chastity o Secular Clergy  Lived and worked directly amongst the laity Quiz Review - Boadicea o Flogged, daughters raped o First symbolic defender of England - See quiz - The Early Middle Ages 1066 - 1290 o Distribution of land  5% pre-conquest landlords  50% Norman invaders  25% The Church  17% Held by the King and Queen directly o The Domesday Book 1086  William surveys the resources and taxable values of boroughs and manors in England o The Coronation Charter 1100  Issued by Henry I  Youngest son of William  Mainly a piece of propaganda at that time  Later viewed as the first document establishing law above the King (pg 143)  First steps toward a limited monarchy rather than absolutism o Government Structure  King  Justiciar  Above all departments  The King’s deputy while he was away  Great officers of state  Officers of the King’s household  Powerful barons  Travelled with the King  Chancellor  In charge of the King’s seal and chancery clerks  Treasurer and chamberlains  Looked after the King’s money and valuables o Local Government  Sheriffs  Chief officers of local government  Chosen from the ranks of earls holding large estates in each county  Collected taxes and paid receipts to the Exchequer  Maintained order and implemented the edicts of local government  At the beginning of the C13th counties could name a coroner  Justices of the Peace  C14th  Given the right to hold court for petty offenders  Development of royal court system C12th  Fees were charged, fines could be levied  Henry II established to central courts at Westminster for important cases  Henry II develops juries  Decree of Clarendon 1166 o 12 man juries to try serious offenders  Royal judges develop common law  Custom, tradition, precedent o Henry II  Problem of controlling English barons as well as Normandy  Marries Eleanor of Aquitaine  Gains her land  Own 2/3 of France  Father was Count Gregory of Anjou  Descendants: Angevin/Plantagenet  Clashed with Beckett over his attempt to control the Church  To limit judicial appeals to Rome and subject the clergy to civil courts  Makes Beckett Archbishop of Canterbury  “Will no one rid me of this upstart priest”  Beckett is murdered by four knights during mass on 29 December 1170  Beckett canonized as a saint  Brought stability to the realm  Marriage to Eleanor or Aquinaine created the Angevin (English-French) Empire  Acquired new lands  Autocratic at home  Reconciled with the Pope  Clashed with his sons over succession in 1173  Revolt supported by Eleanor  Overhauled the justice system and began to centralize gov o Eleanor of Aquitaine 1122-1204  Married Louis VII of France  Divorced  Married Henry II  Encouraged children to rebel against Henry  Put under house arrest  Mother of Richard the Lionhearted and King John o Richard the Lionhearted 1189-1199  Third son of Henry II  Taxed England to raise funds for the Third Crusade  Myth of Robin Hood  Captured on his way back from the Crusade  Reclaimed lands lost while he was imprisoned  Died from a battle wound  Succeeded by Prince John o Myth of Robin Hood  Fought the evil King John and raised money for the ransom of Richard I who pardoned him upon his return to England o Magna Carta 1215  Signed at Runnymede  King John  Clashed with the Pope over the choice of a new Archbishop of Canterbury  Excommunicated in 1209, forced to back down in 1214  Barons tired of constant demands for money and men to defend territory in France, especially after defeats in 1214  Divided into 63 clauses and 4 sections  Section 1: Position of the church  Section 2: Relationship between King and Barons  Section 3: England’s legal system  Section 4: How the provisions would be enforced  King John argued that he was coerced into signing so it was not-legally binding  Significance  Became part of England’s constitutional heritage with acceptable principles of English life  Declared the King was not above the law  No free man could be arrested or imprisoned arbitrarily  “Justice will not be sold to any man nor will it be refused or delayed” (Article 30) o The Baron’s War 1264-1267  Nobles resented Henry III’s (son of John) preference for foreign advisors  Resented Henry’s wasteful campaign to secure Sicily for his son  Discontent worsened by widespread famine  Barons wanted Henry to adhere to the Magna Carta  Simon de Montfort  6 Earl of Leicester married to Henry’s sister  Lead the opposition to the king  Captured both Henry III and his son Edward at the Battle of Lewes 1264  Edward escaped, raised an army  Defeated at Battle of Evasham 1264  Beheaded and dismembered  Significance  Montfort defeated because he appeared to be willing to embrace more democratic ideals by calling a parliament  Idea that there should be a council to discuss important matters  Influenced Edward I to call parliament frequently  Included reps from country and civic society  Parliament became a regular part of the English constitution by the end of the C13th o Role of Early Parliament  Ratified taxation, especially extraordinary levies  Edward began to use Parliament to make statutes  Laws were initiated by the King, not Parliament  The power for Parliament to devise and enact laws came until the C14th o Religion  Encompassed all main events of local life  Parish priest intermediary between the villagers and God  40 000 ordained priests during the C13th  Boundaries between religion and superstition indistinct o Everyday Life  Considerable debate over standard of living  Generally agreed that England was prosperous  Increased trade, port towns thrived  Domestic trading at county fairs and markets during C12, 13 th  Lives governed by the seasons o Houses  Rough, sparsely furnished and filthy  Made of mud, clay and thatch  Manor houses  Made of stone  Wealthy manor  Ornamental tiles  Great hall for meeting, eating and sleeping The Late Middle Ages - Major headings o Hundred Year’s War o Black Death o John Wycliffe o Peasant’s Revolt 1381 o Richard II and Revolution of 1399 o Joan of Arc o War of Roses 1455-1485 o Rise of the Tudor Dynasty - Hundred Year’s War o Series of recurrent conflicts rather than a sustained campaign. o King Edward III o Initial public support o Edward’s goals  Assert his claim to the French throne  Regain the former Angevin empire  Determined to maintain his authority in Aquitaine  Dispute over the wool trade with Flanders  Wished to been seen as a military hero to unify England  Resented Franco-Scottish alliance  Edward III and David II invaded Scotland  Sighted a French fleet, believed to be going to Scotland  France gave refuge to the Scottish King o England is initially successful  Obtained Calais, Aquitaine, Poitou and Gascony  Edward gave up his right to the French throne in exchange o Second phase 1396-1376  Little success for England at great cost  Higher taxation led to Peasant Revolt - The Black Death o Not enough food being produced for growing population  Malnourishment o Flooding, extremely cold temperatures  “Mini ice-age”  Crops die o Unsanitary conditions  Personal hygiene is non-existence  Human waste flowing in the street  Rats flourish  Peasants lived in close quarters o Increased trade from the Crusades  Fleas from Manchuria introduced and infect rats o 4.25 Million people o 2.5 million after o Livestock killed off as well o People ate dog and cat o People did not understand what was happening  Wrath of God  People partied  Flagellants  Dead thrown into the streets o Accelerates decline of the feudal system  So many died that many manors and villages were abandoned  Serfs now moved from the lands they were bound to find work  Began to make more money  Bought abandoned land  Lower class people began to own land o Monks, Priests were hard hit because they visited the sick o Working population – shortages o Statute of Labourers 1351  Attempted to impose a wage freeze o Plague hastened the introduction of money into the economy which helped erode the basis of feudalism - Joan of Arc o Maid of Orleans o 16 years old o Hears “angelic voices”  Tell her it is her duty to lead the French army against the English o Goes to the Dofan? – Prince  Things are going poorly  Believes she is an imposter  Tests her  Dresses up in costume  Joan still recognizes him  Listens to her o Leads the campaign with great success o Clerics angered with her claims God spoke to here  Charged her with heresy  Violated rules of woman-hood by wearing mans armour and fighting o The King did nothing to protect her o Burundians sold her to the English and they burned her at the stake o Canonized in 1920, no actual paintings still exists o Significance  French roused from her apathy  Burgundians turned against the English - Consequences of War o Expensive  Increased taxation o Supplies of food diverted o Wool and wine trade disrupted o Catalyst for social, political and economic change - The Peasant’s Revolt 1381 o Sparked by an attempt to levy a poll tax, third tax in 4 years and it tripled in size o Wat Tyler  Leader of peasants, killed o King Richard II 1377 to 1399  Boy king - Age 14/15  Rode into the midst of the peasants  Was deposed and was murdered or died of starvation  No heir o John Ball  An itinerant priest who loudly criticized the unfairness of feudal society  Hanged, drawn and quartered o Peasants dispersed after promises from Richard to abolish serfdom and the poll tax o King reneged on promise to abolish serfdom, poll tax was dropped o Leaders were hunted down and killed o Significance  One of the earliest expressions of class animosity - Revolution of 1399 o Richard II overthrown by Henry Bolingbroke - War of the Roses o Henry VI  Margaret of Anjou o House of Lancaster  Henry Tudor o House of York  Richard III o Battle of Market Bosworth 1485  Richard III killed  Henry Tudor crowned King Henry VII o Henry marries a Yorkist, Elizabeth o Beginning of the Tudor Dynasty - John Wycliffe pg. 212 o A theologian o Began preaching in 1378 o Distressed by worldliness and corruption of the clergy o Asserted the right of every man to read the Bible in his own language o Translated a large part into English o Questioned fundamental beliefs of the Church  Doctrine of transubstantiation  Preached that all authority must come from God’s grace and therefore no homage was owed to wicked kings and popes  Denied the Church’s right to lavish possessions  Argued that Papal power had no scriptural justification o Condemned by the Pope o Suspended from his university post o Was not executed so he would not become a martyr o Followers were Lollards  Were burned as heretics o Significance  Foreshadowed the Reformation  Ideas adopted by Martin Luther and Calvin o Wycliffe’s Fate  1427 Council of Constance exhumed his body  Was burned and thrown in the River Swift - Schools and Universities o Growth of education important development in later MA o Most peasants still illiterate o Churchman had to know some Latin o Growth of grammar schools intent on teaching boys destined for careers in government or church. Most prestigious were Winchester (1382) and Eton (1440) - Language o By 1400 the country was developing English linguistic identity o Henry V (1413-1422) made English the language of government o Upper classes remained bilingual o Literacy increasing but not widespread (pg 215) - Geoffrey Chaucer o Wrote in vernacular o Wrote about ideal of courtly love o Canterbury Tales - John Gower o Reputation rivaled Chaucer - Economy o Wool shipped to Flanders  War ceased this trade  Clothe production begins in England o Agricultural production decreased or was stagnant o Cod and herring fishing increase - The Enclosure System o Adopted in an attempt to improve productivity after the Plague o Abandonment of common lands and fields and allowed landowners to make individual decisions o Enabled lords to charge higher rents o Protested by Parliaments (landowners themselves) - Guilds o Important medieval institution  Originally established for religious or social purposes  Members made annual payments in exchange for benefits such as:  Prayers  Finance for funerals  Fraternity offering pleasures of fellowship The Tudor Age - Dynasty begins with Henry VII, out of the shambles of the War of Roses o Halted lawlessness o Sweeping reforms to legal system o Tamed the nobility, centralized royal court o Used royal patronage to reward loyalty, set economy on a firm footing o Tried to avoid war by making alliances - Perkin Warbeck o Went to European courts, claiming to be true heir to the English throne - Henry VIII o Maintained alliances with Spain by marrying Catherine, his brother’s widow o Catherine was unable to bear a son  Only surviving child was Mary o Henry  Initially an avid defender of Catholic Church o 1521 Pope bestowed the title of “Defender of the Faith”  Henry was fiercely anti Lutheran - Cardinal Thomas Wolsey o Henry VIII’s Chief Minister o Blocked attempts by nobles to regain powers lost under Henry VII o Luxurious lifestyle and connections to the King made him enemies - The Great Matter o Henry’s divorce o Desperate for a male heir o With Anne Boleyn o Cardinal Wolsey presented the King’s case to Pope Clement VII  Divorce/annulment rejected  Wolsey dismissed o Thomas More  New Lord Chancellor  Against divorce  Resigns in 1532 o Proponents of divorce  Archbishop Thomas Cranmer  Principal Secretary Thomas Cromwell o Catherine of Aragon  Married Henry in 1509  Marriage annulled in 1533  Inability to produce a male heir was the cause of England’s break with Rome  Mother of Mary Tudor o Anne Boleyn  Crowned 1533 after Cranmer declared her marriage legal  Reigned for 1000 days  Charged with high treason and incest  Beheaded 1536  Mother of Elizabeth I o Strategy  Take away the power to grant the divorce from the Pope and give it to the Archbishop of Canterbury  Wealth of the Church to be despoiled and divided amongst Henry’s supporters to forestall political reaction  Between 1529-2536 Parliament passes a series of Acts to end the RC Church’s power  1534 Act of Supremacy  Created the Church of England with the King as head  1536 Act of Dissolution of Monasteries  Transferred possessions of the Church to the Crown  Eliminated centers of royal supremacy o Reaction  Opposition not limited to Thomas More  Treason Act of 1534 used to condemn 883 people between 1532-40  339 were executed  The Pilgrimage Grace 1536/37  Rebellion against Cranmer and Cromwell  Attempt to impose Protestantism o Fall of Thomas Cromwell th  Fell because of his choice of the 4 wife for Henry  Arranged marriage to Anne Cleves to strengthen link with German Protestants  Henry thought she was ugly  Henry charged Cromwell with treason and heresy, executes him  Henry marries Catherine Howard - Henry’s last years pg. 247 o Katherine Howard beheaded o Married Katherine Parr o Anti-Catholic o Renewed hostilities with Scotland and France o Financed campaigns with  Selling off monastic lands  Increased taxes  Mints ordered to debase currency to lessen the amount of valuable metals o Died 1547 - Accomplishments o Found Trinity House  Forerunner to the modern Admiralty o Managed to retain personal loyalty to Protestants and Catholics - The Influx of New Ideas o Sir Thomas More’s Utopia o Erasmus The Praise of Folly o Debate between faith and reason o The new learning of 1520s and 30s lead by the ideas of Luther o The Tyndale Bible  Allowed people to read the Scriptures in English  Banned but openly displayed by Anne Boleyn who obtained a copy from the Antwerp printing in 1534 - Henry VIII’s Foreign Policy o Steered a path between France and the Hapsburgs o Intent on preserving the balance of power in Europe o Invaded Scotland o Crushed Irish revolt, became King of Ireland - Edward VI 1537-1553 o Jane Seymour’s son o Died of TB o Buried at Westminster Abbey o Nine years old o Under the influence of Edward Seymour  Jane Seymour’s brother  Earl of Hertford and Duke of Somerset o Reformation proceeds o 1549 Book of Common Prayer o Somerset deposed in a palace coup by John Dudley, Earl of Warwick (Duke of Northumberland) o Somerset had radical ideas  Ending closures  Giving peasants security of land tenure o Led to conflict with landowners and parliament o Outmaneuvered by John Dudley  Lost support of Edward  Arrested and tried for conspiracy - John Dudley o Regent after Somerset’s death o Pro aristocracy, anti poor o Believed in a strong navy  Built dockyards in Chatham and Kent o Persuaded sickly Edward to sign a document excluding Mary and Elizabeth from the throne (declared illegitimate) - Edward dies 1553 o A reluctant Lady Jane Grey named legal successor (John Dudley’s daughter in law) - Dudley’s Plan o Failed to secure Mary  She fled to East Anglia  Wrote to the Privy Council  People supported legitimate Tudors o Dudley arrested for treason  Executed - Lady Jane Grey executed - Mary Tudor (Bloody Mary) 1553-1558 o Thirty seven, Catholic o Wanted to return to the RC Church  Polarized the country o Married Philip, heir to the Spanish throne o Archbishop Cranmer, Bishops Latimer and Ridley burned at the stake o About 300 (Marian Martyrs) burned or fled into exile  Even the Pope and Philip thought she had gone too far o Unable to bear children o Virtually abandoned by Philip o Executions which she regarded as necessary were unpopular o Landowners refused to give up former church properties o Parliament refused to crown Philip for fear of being dragged into Spain’s wars o Died in 1558 o Death heralded the Elizabethan Age The Elizabethan Age - Queen Elizabeth I 1558-1603 o Daughter of Henry VII and Anne Boleyn o Highly educated o Key advisors  William Cecil (Lord Burghley)  Powerful influence  Sir Francis Walsingham  Spymaster  Disrupted plots against Elizabeth  Used agents provocateurs, early modern intelligence o Repealed Mary’s Catholic legislation o Re-enacted the Act of Supremacy  Eliminated Papal supremacy and jurisdiction in England o Avoided unnecessary offence to Catholics o Firm insistence upon traditions of the Church  Allowed the RCs to continue to venerate saints, go on pilgrimages o Elizabethan Settlement brought stability and spared England from the religious wars plaguing Europe o Main opposition came from Puritans  Did not believed the Church was purified - Puritans o A significant proportion of the gentry and merchant class o Ideals  Bible is sole authority  Held doctrine of predestination  Believed in omnipotent God  Church a body of faithful and ministers were teachers not priests imbued with miraculous authority  Disciplined  Militant  Believed rebirth and conversion set him above and apart form the rest of humanity - Mary, Queen of Scots o Great Granddaughter of Henry VII o Three marriages o Scottish people revolt o Forced to flee to England o Put under house arrest for 18-19 years o Catholics supported her right to the throne  Plot to overthrow Elizabeth o Executed o Signed her name Stewart with the French spelling Stuart  Her son became King of Scotland and England as a Stuart - Piracy and Settlement - The Spanish Bogey o English Pirates Sir Francis Drake and John Hawkins attacked Spanish fleets and towns in the New World o Tacit approved by Elizabeth  Could no longer deny her involvement when she knighted Drake after he returned from a voyage around the world o Phillip angry over execution of Mary  Determined to depose the bastard heretic Queen  Elizabeth was also aiding the Dutch against the Spanish o Spanish Armada  Most famous 1588  Combination of luck, inferior Spanish tactics and better English ships  English saw themselves as defenders of Protestantism o Failings at the End of Her Reign  Incompetent, unrealistic taxation system  Expensive wars  Rising corruption  Poor laws unable to keep pace during economic distress  Disease, malnutrition, crime  Her death in 1603 was greeted with relief - Intellectual History and Literature in the Tudor Age o Humanism spreads to England  Thomas More’s Utopia o Elizabeth’s reign considered a golden age  Shakespeare  Poetry of Edmund Spenser pg. 281  The Faerie Queen  Dramas of Christopher Marlowe  Dr. Faustus play  Stabbed to death at 29 - The Bard of Avon o Shakespeare straddled the last years of the Tudors and the rise of the Stuarts o Born in Stratford on Avon o Went to London in early 20’s o Became a member of Lord Chamberlain’s Men o Writing plays by 1592 o Share in the syndicate of the Globe Theatre - Parliament under the Tudors o Parliament entrenched under the Tudors o Henry VII made use of parl. o House of Lords still powerful  Counsel with the King o Hereditary secular peerage provided continuity to English politics o Monarchs continued to rule in a regal manner.  Tudors cut their subjects to size  One spoke ones mind in Parliament at their own risk o Increases importance  Went from meeting once everything 3 years to once a year The Stuarts 1603-1688 - James I o Mary Queen of Scots son o Gunpowder Plot o Duke of Buckingham - Charles I o Civil war o Tried for treason and executed o Believes in Divine Right o Doesn’t call parliament for 11 years - Oliver Cromwell o Puritans o Executed Charles I o Names himself Lord Protector of the Commonwealth o Unpopular rule o Imprisons people without trial o Dies in 1660 - Commonwealth - Charles II o Fled when his after was executed o Invited back to take his rightful place o Restoration o Did not seek revenge o Taxes favor landlords
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