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NEUR 2600 (19)

Overview - First Class

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University of Lethbridge
NEUR 2600
Ian Whishaw

Outline January-11-13 10:53 AM 1. The Brain. 2. Behavior. 3. The BrainTheory. Harvey - Graduate student - Had in mind to eventuallybe ableto put his brain in a bottle. ○ Communicatewith people outside the bottle ○ Electrical activity can communicate, etc - Seemed crazy at the time, but people are using brainwavestoday - Would he reallysurvive?Would he reallybe Harveyif he put his brain in a bottle? ○ Without sensory or motor input, it would die ○ Higherthe spinal cord missing,the less emotional input ○ Neil Hebb, sensory escalation (soundproof room, blinded, etc), people would ask to get out even though they werebeing paid well. - Lieutenant CommanderData ○ Made a robot with everybit of behavior was identicallylikea human ○ Would it be a human? Mental attributes of human? CNS - Forebrain ○ In front of ○ Crinkly,groove, sulci, greymatter ○ Every brain is a littledifference ○ Lateral fissure (deep one) ○ Some organization to it, likethe dorsal, medial, etc ○ Made up of hemispheres  Corpus callosum holds the hemispherestogether (hard likea callous)  Lots of differencesbetween them ○ Left, right hemisphere ○ Connected by fibres, corpus callosumm ○ Four lobes: frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital ○ Grooves on cortex are sulci and bumps are gyri ○ Large grooves = fissures - Brainstem ○ Stuff in middle,likeflower ○ Cerebellum ○ Fibres go down into spinal cord ○ Corpus callosum on top of it (white in MRI's because littlewater in it, just likethe skull) ○ Cerebellumalso has sulci and gyri too, just smaller ○ Canal that has fluidin middle ○ Connects forebrainand spinal cord - Spinal cord ○ Leading down ○ Connects brainstem and forebrain ○ Can't feel anything ifyou don't have it (PNS) ○ PNS isorganized too, just likeeverything else  Vertabrae □ Connects to different sections of body □ Gets information from skin □ Gets information from skin □ Each part of the brain uniquelyconnected □ Lose that vertebrae, lose that movementand feeling Behavior Behavioris the pattern of actions in time. Relativelyplastic and learned - forebrain Relativelyfixed and inherited - brainstem Freud: - Behaviorwas two parts ○ Unconscious and conscious  Sex and aggressionin unconscious □ Things that motivate people ○ Conscious  Everything welearn  Civilizedpart of the brain (tip of the iceberg)controls unconscious - Birds eating behavior (textbook) ○ Different animalshave different behaviours ○ True for people too ○ Everyone recognizes a smile,must be an innate communication smile  Not dependent, but somewhat automatically because wired to brain  Recognition of smilesin other people are wiredin brain ○ Learned vs Unlearned SUM - Behavioris patterns in time - Some innate, relativelyfixedand geneticallydetermined(brainstem) - Some behavior islearned (forebrain) - Humans show both innate and learnedbehavior - Nervous structures mediating innate and learned behavior are likelysomewhat different THEORIES - Aristotle: mentalism ○ Proposed that the mind controls behavior  Mental abilitiesof the psyche: □ Reason □ Memory □ Attention □ Emotion □ Language  Anima= mind  Thought there was nonmaterial brain, separate from the body  Brain was used to cool the blood -> Cardiachypothesis  Heart was the agent of the mind  Calledthe mind the psyche □ After Greek mythology(textbook)  The cardiac hypothesis □ Put your heart into it □ My heart is broken □ Cardiac explanationsfor behavior  The heart doesn't have anything to do with that stuff  Even after thousands of years, this terminologystill gets used in our lg □ How did the soul/psyche get introduced into religion?  Thomas Aquinas ◊ All
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