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NEUR 2600 (19)

The Spinal Cord

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University of Lethbridge
NEUR 2600
Ian Whishaw

The Spinal Cord January-18-13 11:00 AM - Organization (3D) - It's function, effects of damage, approaches to fixing that 1. Organization 2. Function 3. Injury and Treatment a. Every cell and connection in the spinal cord has a function Spinal Cord Organization 1. Segmentation a. Evolved from earlyanimalsthat had spinal cords of sorts i. Worms (segments) b. Hox genes i. Transcription factors that activate other genes that in turn produce the segments of the body of animals - they are read off from head to tail during development ii. In humans, they'veduplicated with four sets of Hox Genes, similarto that of a fruit fly 1) Color coded diagramsin powerpoint iii. Mutations - extra set of wings,nervous system, in humans - extra finger, etc iv. Each segment of the spinal cord essentiallyruns a certain part of the body v. Dermatones: "skin-cut" 1) Segments of the spinal cord 2) Dermatones in each person are a littledifferent 3) Usefulnes: a) Locating spinal cord injury b) Distinguishingreal and hysterical symptoms c) Guidance in reattaching arms vi. Dorsal-ventral specialization 2. Dorsal-ventral specialization a. Ventral (inside) a) 2 sets of fibers i) Bell-MegendieLaw One. Sir CharlesBell Two. Francois Megendie Three. The dorsal roots are sensory and the ventral roots are motor First. Hard to find in adult animals Second. Magendiewas able to find and cut them in puppies 1. Cut one, don't lose the other b. Anterior a) Ventral fibers 1) Motor coming from spinal cord to muscles c. Posterior a) Dorsal fibers 1) Sensory coming from skin and muscles, taking info into body (behind) d. Brain a) Cranial nerve. 12 and most anterior spinal cord segments e. Not only are muscles organized segmentally,so are body organs 3. Medial-lateral specialization 1) The butterfly effect a) When you cut the vertebrae i) Inside= cells i) Inside= cells ii) Outside = fibers(taking information up to brain) iii) Organized in 9 layers - the dorsal layersare concerned with sensory information, the ventral layersare motor What does the spinal cord do? - Relaybody info to brain - Carrybrain info to muscles - Spinal behaviorsor reflexes Reflexes - CharlesScott Sherrington ○ The IntegrativeAction of the Nervous System ○ Described the reflexesof the spinal cord -
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