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NEUR 2600 (19)

The Telencephalon

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University of Lethbridge
NEUR 2600
Ian Whishaw

Telencephalon January-23-13 10:59 AM The Forebrain: - General features of the forebrain, including 3 major parts - Diseasecondition that is characteristic of these structures 1. The neocortex - creates reality a. Size b. Lobes c. Hemispheres d. CellularStructure 2. Basal ganglia- reward, associational memory 3. Limbic (lining)cortex - personal memory There are some people born without a cortex (acephalic) or with a small one (micocephalic) - Gene involvedin this (beta-catenin gene)which is a mutation that causes the heads and brains of somepeople to be smallerthan normal ○ In mice, the brain grewto almost double usual size with a souped up beta-caratine gene, developedsulci and gyri.  May model some kindsof autism spectrum disorder Protection 1. Skull 2. Dura, arachnoid and pia a. Meninges i. Dura = hard. Leathery layer ii. Arachnoid = spider iii. Pia = soft 1) These all protect the brain from bacteria 2) Don't protect from blows a) Brain willbe thrown forwards into skull despite tissue b) Bounces back to back of head into skull again i) Coup + Contrecoup One. Blow and counter-blow Two. Contusion Three. Swelling Four. Blood clots c) Tau = indicates degenerated cells 3. Ventricles I-IV a. Hydrocephalus i. Ventricle gets plugged,the CSF keeps generating with nowhere to go, ventricle grows biggerand bigger,especiallyin children Blood Supply 1. Middle cerebral artery 2. Posterior cerebral artery 3. Anterior cerebral artery 4. Circleof Willis 5. Arch of aorta Crossed brain principle - Each hemisphereis in control of the opposite sideof the body ○ Hemiplegia Neocortex is on the outside, and iscomposed of whitematter (fibers, inside)and greymatter (cells, Neocortex is on the outside, and iscomposed of whitematter (fibers, inside)and greymatter (cells, outside) - Opposite of the spine (greymatter on inside, white
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