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NEUR 2600 (19)

Cell Function

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NEUR 2600
Ian Whishaw

Cell Function January-28-13 8:20 AM Things you needto know: 1. The parts of a cell 2. The sequence ofaction by a cell to produce and export a protein 3. The four kinds of proteinsactive in and around the cell membrane The Cell 1. Cell structure 2. Cell function 1 brain 2 hemispheres 3 levels of function (spinal brain, brain stem, the brain) 4 lobes (frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital) 5 types of neurons, 5 types of glial cells Electron Microscope - Uses electrons instead of light Properties of a cell membrane - Semipermeable Hydrophilic ○ Some things get through, others don't  Unless the cell wants it to ○ Properties that make it semi-permeable:  Phospholipid molecule  A cell membrane is a bilayer Hydrophobic □ One layer phospholipid cells facing out to extracellular fluid □ Other faces intracellular  Heads are charged and are attracted towards the water  Doesn't allow water to go through because fatty tails are hydrophobic Extracellular Fluid ◊ Water molecules are repelled by the tails of phospholipid molecules and so the membrane is impermeable to water  Phospholibid bilayer □ Hydrophobic - water heating Intracellular fluid □ Hydrophilic - water loving - Many flourescent dies incorporate into the cell membrane because fatty ○ Goes into membrane, attaches to tails of bilayer, moves all around the membrane - Membranes can be considered as walls that partition a cell into rooms that provide biochemical privacy ○ Isolates the activity of the cell from the ECF  Without interference Cell Structure - Chromosome ○ Autosomes - sex chromosomes  One of each pair from father + mother ○ Chromo = color - Nucleus - Nuclear membrane - Endoplasmic reticulum - Golgi bodies - Microtubules - Cell membrane Cell Function - making a protein 1. Proteins formed in the ER enter the Golgi bodies, where they are wrapped in a membrane and given a shipping address 2. Continue from powerpoint... The Human Genome Project - 20 to 25 thousand genes ○ Each gene makes one protein ○ We're interest in channels, gates, pumps and transmitters - 3 billion base pairs ○ The Genome War - James Shreeve The function of the cell is to produce proteins - One gene produces one protein ○ 20 000 genes, implies 20 000 primary proteins ○ Proteins can be cut in half or combined  Infinite number of proteins  20 000 primary proteins is what we really mean Genes represent the code for a pr
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