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NEUR 2600 (19)

Inheritance and Genetic Engineering

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University of Lethbridge
NEUR 2600
Ian Whishaw

Inheritance and Genetic Engineering January-29-13 9:41 PM Main Points: - A largepart of the genomeis involvedin brain function - There are many brain abnormalitiesthat are due to genetic abnormalities - Genetic engineeringis the science of manipulatingthe genomeand it could be recruited for curing brain abnormalitiesand diseases - Epigenetics explainsenvironmental influences Genetics: - Genotype ○ Refers to the possession of genespassed from parent to offspring - Epigenetic ○ Refers to environmental possessesthat modifythe expressionof genes - maybe passed from parent to offspring ○ Major debate a couple years ago - Phenotype ○ Refers to combined influenceof genetic and epigeneticfactors Discussion of Genotype and Phenotype - Genotype of a Huntington's disease subject is not always the same as the phenotype - dominant, but maynot be expressed for years - The genotype of a Tay-Sachs subject is not the sameas the phenotype - recessiveand has no negativeeffect JamesD Watson - First person to have his entire genome described ○ Is Watson a Neanderthal? They are 99+% related ○ Publishedhis works in 1953 CompleteGenetic Scan - Your genetic riskfor over 47 diseases - Results in 25 days - Samplecollection kit $49.00 - Fee payable upon sample submission$1850 - Personal DNA Art Whishaw - white wood in Danish ***DNA Art Alleles- The copies of a gene from each parent 1. Homozygous - code for the sameprotein 2. Heterozygous - code for different proteins 3. Dominant - an allelethat isexpressed 4. Recessive - an allelethat is not expressed 5. Codominant - both expressed - The code in each gene iswritten inthousands of bases and so mutations, and alternative codes, can take thousands of forms Mutation - A change in the sequence of nucleotide bases ○ BRCA1- DNA repair  Breast Cancer suppressor gene  Breast Cancer suppressor gene ○ Researchers have identifiedmore than 1000 mutations in the BRCA1gene, but some are more important than others There are about2000 described genetic diseases of the brain - Down's syndrome ○ Triosmy 21 ○ Incident 1 in 800 - Tay-Sachs ○ A fatty acid called gangliosideaccumulates in the brain cel
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