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NEUR 2600 (19)


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University of Lethbridge
NEUR 2600
Ian Whishaw

Learning February-13-13 11:00 AM 1. Habituation 2. Sensitization 3. Long Term Memory 4. Eric Kandel Calcium = ion, carries 2 charges voltage sensitive channels on neuron terminals - Binds to calmodulin, binds to vesicles releasing some from filaments and inducing others to bind to the presynaptic membrane and to empty their contents. The Cellular Basis of Learning - Eric Kandel ○ Nobel Prize in 2000 ○ Wrote "In Search of Memory"  "Without memory we would be nothing"  Aplysia - california sea slug □ Ways a couple pounds □ Have orgies.  100, 000 neurons □ Abdominal ganglia = 20 000 neurons  Runs the circuitry in its gill  Behavior = gillretracts when touched - Habituation ○ Horses weren't designed for humans ○ How do we get them to get used to us? ○ Define: the response to a stimulus weakens with repeated presentation  Given that a particular stimulus elicits a response, repeated applications of the stimulus results in decreased response  If the stimulus is withheld, the response tends to recover over time (spontaneous recover)  If repeated serious of habituation training and spontaneous recovery are given, habituation becomes successively more rapid  Other things being equal, the more rapid the frequency of stimulation, the more rapid and/or more pronounced is habituation  The weaker the stimulus, the more rapid and/or more pronounces is habituation. Strong stimuli may yield no significant habituation  The effects of habituation training may proceed beyond the zero or asymptotic response level  Habituation of response to a given stimulus exhibits stimulus generalization to other stimuli. ○ QUESTION: what happens to gill response after repeated stimulation? 1. Gill withdraws from water jet 2. Gill no longer withdraws from water jet demonstrating habituation Results: the sensory neuron stimulates the motor neuron to produce gill withdrawal before habituation  With habituation, the influx of calcium ions in response to an action potential decreases  Resulting in less neurotransmitter released at the presynaptic membrane  And less depolarization of the postsynaptic membrane Conclusion: withdrawal response weakens with repeated presentation of water jet (habituation) owing to decreased Calcium influx and subsequently less neurotransmitter release from the presynaptic axon terminal.  Study this calcium channel and its changes – Should follow the same rule: if you come back the next day, should be letting calcium back in – If you do it repeatedly over days, better effect – A lot of
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