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NEUR 2600 (19)


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University of Lethbridge
NEUR 2600
Ian Whishaw

Addiction - A Change in Synapses February-25-13 10:59AM What we're talkingabout today: Drugs and Behavioral Variability 1. Effect 2. Tolerance 3. Sensitization 4. Addiction Can work as agonist or antagonist. Why do people do what they do on drugs? 1. Disinhibition 2. Time out 3. Myopia - Funny, sad, aggressive - Depend on individual, depend on the time, all sorts of complicated factors Tolerance 1. Metabolic - Liver better at burning off the alcohol via enzymes 2. Cellular - Depressed by alcohol. Cells have ability to recover, so brain cells are a little knocked out by alcohol, but they normalize themselves - Cells compensate for effects of alcohol 3. Behavioral - You adjust your behavior, after a number of experiences you begin to cope with effects of alcohol Each time you take a drug, could have a different effect on you ○ Went to a prison with whisky, and their only job was to drink as much whisky as they wanted ○ Monitored alcoholic intake and blood alcohol  Blood alcohol went down after a time (tolerance) ○ Signs of intoxication fell too Wenger et al, 1983 - A rat trained on a motor skill under alcohol can do very well ○ Control ○ Control-Alcohol ○ Alcohol-Alcohol Sensitization - increased responsiveness to successive equal doses ○ Terry E. Robinson - Amphetamine -> changes your brain permanently Psychomoter stimulants -> brain goes a little faster - Cocaine - Amphetamine ○ Both drugs of abuse, same nervous system structures, both small molecules (take by mouth, inject into vein, smoke them) ○ Commonly used drugs Psychometer Sensitization - Sensitization is best if delivery is rapid, e.g., intraveneous vs oral C-fos (message from DNA related to addiction),in response to cocaine is greater to rapid administration - Bigger effect each time, eventually overheat and die Addictionis: "A behavioral pattern of drug use, characterized by overwhelming involvement with the use of a drug (compulsive use), the securing of its supply, and a high tendency to relapse after withdrawal" Addictionis not: – Experimental drug use – Recreational (casual) use – Circumstantial use Sex differences in drug use: (JillB. Becker) Sex differences are present for all of the phases of drug abuse (initiation,escalation of use, addiction). The general pattern of sex differences is the same for all drugs. Females begin regularly self-administering licit and illicit drugs of abuse at earlier ages respond to lower doses, and use escalates more rapidly to addiction, and females are at greater risk for relapse following abstinence. Dopamine hypothesis of addiction 1. Abused drugs produce psychomotor activation - Make you intellectually, make your brain work faster, make body work faster - Generally what dopamine synapse does 2. Abused drugs produce rel
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