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NEUR 2600 Lecture Notes - Neurosphere, Camillo Golgi, Subventricular Zone


Course Code
NEUR 2600
Ian Whishaw

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3 main types of brain cells: stem cells, neurons and glia
5 types of neurons and 5 types of glia
Neurons have 10 distinguishing features
There are brain diseases specifically related to neurons and specifically related to glia
Main Points:
Created the Golgi stain
Camillo Golgi
Weren't directly connected with each other like a net.
Concluded that the net was actually individual units (cells)
2 scientists working on this problem (no one knew what cells are)
First scientists to get awarded together, but didn't like each other that much
Ramony Cajal
The Neuron Doctrine
Light passed through tissue, light refracted through lens, reflected onto retina
Get a pretty good overall idea of structure/anatomy
Tissue is stained
Light Microscope
Scientist has to put tissue under microscope and get just the light for one fluorescent color,
then combine each photo
Fluorescent Microscope
Different type of light microscopicy
Actually grow animals with fluorescent cells
Scientists have figured out which gene produced the FL protein, and insert it into a mouse
genome, etc
Cells that produce dopamine might FL green, etc
Engineered these genes so that the FL proteins are only expressed in certain types of cells
Animals that naturally produce these FL proteins (jelly fish)
Stimulate the mouse (touch paw, etc) and watch how neurons react to stimulation
Scientists cut a hole into the skull to look at the brain of living creatures
2 Photon Microscope
Looking at brain cells
How do we know the brain is made of cells?
Neurogenesis = birth
Dentate gyrus/subgranular zone
Migrate to olfactory bulb
Subventricular zone
By using the right chemical environment, cause retinal cells to undergo neurogenesis
Exciting because neurons are getting born, travel to lesion and help heal damage from stroke,
Promising because you might encourage retina to replace damaged tissue and restore sight
It was once thought that we had all our brain cells shortly after birth. There are three places that generate new
cells throughout life.
Stem cells Neurogenesis:
Brain Cells
10:13 PM
Brain and Behavior Page 1
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