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NEUR 2600 (32)
Lecture

Developmental Neuroscience

2 Pages
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Department
Neuroscience
Course Code
NEUR 2600
Professor
Ian Whishaw

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German scientist
His discovery: if you took baby geese and hatched them, they'd follow you around and
imprint on you thinking you were the mother goose
Wait a little longer, loses capacity to imprint
Younger is better, things can only happen at some age
Genome is somehow prepared to do
Critical period
Imprinting
-
Malthusian survival
Gerald Edelman - 1972 NP
-
Critical Periods - Konrad Lorenz (1973 NP)
If the right experiences happen, the brain changes
Respond to seek out consistency, and eventually they end up with a proper
pattern
The retinal ganglion cells that project to the tectum send out random axons,
which then are pruned to their adult pattern through visual experiences
When they project, they're haphazard
What changes?
Visual system:
-
Functional validation
White is the input from one visual field, and the black is the input from the other
-
The left and right eye form alternating columns called ocular dominance columns in the
visual cortex
The absence of visual input from one eye allows the good eye to expand its territory
You would think in an adult brain that it's wired that way
-
Tectum accommodated the third eye: ocular dominance columns forming in the
tectum as the old and new eye share the projection fields
Implanted a third eye in the embryo of a frog
Experiment:
-
Ocular dominance columns
Each transition is associated with a brain growth spurt
Object permanence - Sensorimotor
Conservation - Concrete Operations
Cognitive Developmental Stages
-
Jean Piaget
Richard Tees
-
At first, babies use all possible sounds in human speech
Upon listening to their native language, they lose babbling sounds that are not used and
even lose the ability to hear those sounds
Janet Werker
-
Behavioural Darwinism
Accent and age - between 5 and 13 years of age, people lose the baility to learn a language
with a native accent
-
Brain damage and language - at about 5 years of age, brain damage that impairs language
prevents the relearning of language
-
Other evidence
Developmental Neuroscience
March-01-13
11:01 AM
Brain and Behavior Page 1

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Description
Developmental Neuroscience March-01-13 11:01 AM Critical Periods - Konrad Lorenz (1973 NP) - Imprinting ○ German scientist ○ Hisdiscovery: if you took baby geeseand hatched them, they'd followyou around and imprinton you thinking you were the mother goose ○ Something about brain just after birth to latch onto something  Wait a little longer, losescapacity to imprint  Critical period □ Younger is better, things can only happen at some age □ Genome is somehowprepared to do - Gerald Edelman- 1972 NP ○ Malthusian survival Functional validation - Visual system: ○ If the right experiences happen, the brain changes ○ What changes?  When they project, they're haphazard □ Respond to seek out consistency, and eventuallythey end up with a proper pattern □ The retinal ganglioncellsthat project to the tectum send out random axons, which then are pruned to their adult pattern through visual experiences Ocular dominance columns - White is the input from one visual field, and the black is the input from the other - You would think in an adult brain that it's wired that way ○ The left and right eye form alternating columns called ocular dominance columns in the visual cortex ○ The absence of visual input from one eyeallowsthe good eye to expand its territory - Experiment: ○ Implanteda third eye in the embryo of a frog  Tectum accommodated the third eye: ocular dominance columns forming in the tectum as the old and new eye share the projection fields Jean Piaget - CognitiveDevelopmentalStages ○ Each transition is associated with a brain growth spurt ○ Object permanence - Sensorimotor ○ Conservation - Concrete Operations Behavioural Darwinism - Richard Tees - Janet Werker ○ At first, babies use all possiblesounds in human speech ○ Upon listening to their native language,they lose babbling sounds that are not used and even lose the abilityto hear those sounds Other evidence - Accent and age - between 5 and 13 years of age, people losethe bailityto learn a language with a native accent - Brain damageand language - at about 5 years of age, brain damagethat impairslanguage prevents the relearningof language prevents the relearningof language Harry Harlow - The effects of deprivationin early lifeare profound - There are many kinds of deprivation ○ Food, contact, social Environmental Depriva
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