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Lecture 16

POLI 2310 Lecture Notes - Lecture 16: Representative Democracy, Lee Kuan Yew, Closed List

Political Science
Course Code
POLI 2310
Alan Sairoff

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Egypt & Singapore
Egypt Timeline
- 1923: first constitution
- 1952 Revolution by dissolution army officers Military authoritarianism
- 1952-54 Revolutionary command council
- 1953 Republic proclaimed
- 1954- Col Gamal Abdel Nassar consolidates power
- 1956 nationalizes the Suez Canal
changes titles to President and Vice president
president picked by National Assembly
- 1958 -62 brief union with Syria (United Arab Republic)
- 1967 defeat in the six-Days War
- 1970 Nassar dies, Anwar Sadat becomes interim
o new constitution allowing opposition parties to exist
- 1971 Sadat takes effective control
- 1973 Yom Kippur War
- 1977 Sadat visits Jerusalem
- 1978 Camp David accords
o Sadat founds National Democratic Party
- 1979 Egypt- Isreal Peace Treaty
- 1981 Sadat assassinated
o Hosni Mubara takes over
Former AF General
Uses state of emergency to clamp down
- 2005 referendum approves direct elections for president
o electoral authoritarianism
- first contested presidential election
o muslim Brotherhood does well
- 2011 Mubarak resigns after popular protests
- Supreme Council of the Armed Forces assumes power
- 2012 Mohammad Morsi of the MB wins presidential elections defeated Ahmed
Shafik on the run off vote: 52.7% to 48.3%
Politics of Egypt
- based on republicanism, semi-presidential system of government
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- established after the Egyptian Revolution of 2011 and the resignation of Mubarak
- president is elected for two four year terms
- the Parliament is unicameral
- president can appoint up to 5% of the total number of seats in parliament and can
dissolve it
- parliament can impeach the president
- traditionally ruled by royals until 1952 but first free elected President was in 2012
- Parliament of Egypt is the oldest legislative chamber in Africa
Egyptian Revolution 1952
- Within the voice of the people
- New regime was common to all Egyptians in terms of religion, culure, and language
- End of monarchy signaled an end for British intervention
- Government that is 100% consisting of Egyptians was expected to act in favor of
- A mixture of capitalism and feudalism initiated the anti-feudal coup
- The Egyptian economy was capitalist since last quarter of the 19th century because
cotton exports increased and wage-earning labour
- Monarchy was corrupt and pro-British
- Lavish lifestyle that seemed provocative
- Policies completed the image of the Egyptian government being a puppet-figure in
the hands of the British government
- Promoting the feeling of corruptness of several Egyptian insitutions the police, the
palace, political parties
- Loss of the 1948 war with Isreal led to the blame of the King and their promotion of
that feeling amongst the people
- A group of ar offiers the free offier oeet as fored  Nasser.
- Army general Mohamed Naguib showed seriousness and attracted followers
- Planned to overthrow Monarchy on 2-3 August, but did it on July 19 because of fear
that the King would shit on them
- Coup was on the night of July 22
- King Farouk sought intervention by the USA because the coup was conducted by less
than 100 officers
- Neutralized the British support network
- U“A didt respod
- He army occupied Alexandria where the King was in residence
- He fled out of fear
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