Comparative Politics Notes Upload version.docx

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Political Science
Course Code
POLI 2310
Alan Sairoff

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Comparative Politics Sovereignty - The authority that a state has over a piece of territory First World - Economically developed - “Western” Second World - Economically developed - “Eastern” Third World - Undeveloped/developing De Facto State - Domestic control - No international relations - Northern Cyprus - Somaliland - Palestine Sovereign State - Domestic control - International relations De Jure State - International relations - No domestic control - Iraq - Former Yugoslavia - States in civil war - States occupied by a foreign power Nature of authority - Traditional (monarch) - Legal/Rational (prime minister) - Charismatic (Martin Luther King Jr.) o No legal authority but has a large following Developed Nations - Industry - Infrastructure - Standard of living - Political system is institutionalized - Separation of powers - Government has power throughout the entire territory - Scope of government action - Shift from traditional to legal authority Stages of Political Development These steps should occur in order for smooth development 1. National identity o Sense that people belong, “I am ______________” o Unifying force o Made easier by shared language, religion etc. 2. Political institutions 3. Elite political competition o Political power amongst the upper class 4. Responsible government o Development of a stable political system o Transition to legal authority 5. Universal suffrage Despite the fact that most western countries developed these steps over hundreds of years, the modern attitude towards developing nations is to rush them along through this process State Classifications - Effective o Functional judicial system o Effective government o Basic education o Control of territory o Effective infrastructure - Weak o One or more of:  Government does not control some areas  State is seen as illegitimate by the people  Ineffective judicial system  Ineffective bureaucracy o Poor infrastructure - Collapsed o No state authority o Civil war o Ethnic divisions The Perfect State - Central capital - A circular shape - Natural geography cooperates Afghanistan - Ethnic Divisions o Pashtuns 42% o Tajiks 27% o Hazara 9% o Uzbeks 9% o Turkmen 2% o Baluch 2% - Geography limits effective borders, movement - Primitive road networks - Borders drawn for political reasons, not by ethnic boundaries - Series of conflicts with the British over territory - Khan accepts many of the British terms o Durand line formed o Tries to develop effective control over the country - Soviet aid in development - Attempts to placate ethnic groups - Monarchy ends in 1973 - Communist Party took over in 1978 and took over the whole political system o Didn‟t have much support outside the capital o Year later, sought out Soviets for help and support o Established control over much of the country - Americans backed rebels, forcing Soviets into stalemate (could control capital and some major cities that they already controlled) - Americans forced Soviets out of country, but Soviets still financially and militarily supported Afghanistan - „91-92, Soviet Union explodes- unable to send aid to Afghanistan - Collapsed state for a few years afterwards- no central power. Rebel groups controlled various territories. - Taliban gains control over much of the country o Institutes various theocratic policies o Tries to unify country - Bush in his “infinite wisdom” decides to invade Iraq (and later Afghanistan) as consequence of 9/11, destroying many of their forces. o Decides it‟s better to not rebuild Afghanistan - Karzai (check spelling) sought to intentionally weaken state to ensure there wouldn‟t be political parties opposed to him - Parties not on ballots, only candidate‟s name - Electoral system “SMPE” multiple candidates running for the same party. People vote against members of the same party, thus weakening the other parties. - Sets up rules of the game to make it beneficial to him. - After 2006 presidential elections, country became more stable. Taliban wasn‟t as vocal. - Ethnic division became more prevalent in 2009 elections - Corruption leading to weakening of entire political system, leading to more people joining the Taliban to try to overthrow the government. Chapter 3 Liberal Democracy - Demos: People - Cracy: Power - Liberal democracies - Electoral democracies - Autocracies o Semi-liberal o Closed - Responsible Government o Legally created o Non-accountable head of state o Civilian executive control of the military - Free and Fair Competition for Political Office o Elected officials are chosen and removed in peaceful, fair election o Political parties can freely form and compete in elections - Full and Equal Rights of Political Participation o Practically all adults have the right to vote o Only one vote per person o Most adults have the right to run for office - Full Civil Liberties o Freedom of the press o Freedom of religion o Freedom of organization o Freedom of expression - A Well Functioning State with Effective and Fair Governance o The state has effective presence throughout the whole territory o The rule of law clearly and strongly exists and is upheld by an independent, unbiased judiciary o Political and bureaucratic corruption is minimal or non-existent The Military in Politics - Civilian control - Military control - Civilian control with history of military control - Mature Political Culture o People agree on legitimate government o Procedures for transferring power are law o Military coups are unthinkable - Developed Political Culture o History of military coups o Military coup not seen as legitimate o Would be unsuccessful o People would revolt against the coup leaders - Low Political Culture o No agreement on legitimate government o Low civic mobilization - Minimal Political Culture o Traditional society o No understanding of what legitimate power is - Polarized o Organized civil society o Disagreement on legitimate power o Effective opposition to military coups Argentina - Stable history - String of coups between 1930s and 1976 - Stable since - Late 1800s o National identity o Institutions o Elections were fraudulent - 1912 o Enfranchised all adult men - Skipped elite competition - Military overthrew the government in 1930 - Juan Peron o Gains power in 1940s o Sets basis of power in industrial workers o Increased social mobilization - Falklands War o Defeated by the British o Undermined the regime o Legitimacy of military rule no longer accepted by the public o Government put more civilian control on the military Chapter 5 - Power Resources o Any resource that can be used to make a political argument o Economic o Intellectual o Organizational - Some societies have more power resources accessible to all citizens - Production of power resources by developed countries - If resources are askew (only a small elite is educated and wealthy) then there are fewer power resources o Autocracies o Rural, un-developed - Optimally, power resources are spread throughout the population o Educated citizens will demand certain things o Citizens will resist challenges to democracy o Urban, industrial societies - Greatest factor between autos/demos o Internet use o Freedom to access information o Censorship - Economic factors in power resources o Capitalist  Private ownership  Democracies  Distribution of power resources o Socialist  Central ownership  Autocratic  Elitist control of power resources o Mixed - Consociational Democracy Democracies - Presidential Systems o One person executives o Winner take all o Separation of powers  President and congress are chosen separately  Independent survival  Voters can “split” their vote o Fixed terms  Applies to president and assembly o Presidential candidates are directly elected and win by majority o Impeachment - Parliamentary Systems o Distinction between head of gov and head of state o Possibility of coalition government o Link between composition of the parliament and the part in power o No guarantee of terms of office, max limits o Ability to cast a vote of non-confidence o Head of government has support of the legislature  Vote of investiture  Positive parliamentarianism  Assembly elects the head of gov  May be appointed by the head of state o No one party majority  Coalition government – positive parliament  Minority government – negative parliament - Mixed System o Dual executive  PM directly elected  PM not accountable o Single executive  Accountable to legislature  Chosen by, but not accountable to the legislature o Co-executives  Chosen by, but not accountable to legislature - Federalism o Bicameral Australia - House of Representatives o 3 year terms o Entirely elected in one election o Single member majority system (alternative vote)  Preferential Ballot  Candidates ranked in order of preference - Senate o 6 year terms o Staggered elections  ½ every 3 years o Multi member system o Single transferable vote  Quota  Proportional system  Surplus votes past the quota are transferred to aid fellow party members - Mandatory voting - Electoral Districts o District Magnitude  How many elected per district o Single Member System  1 elective per district - Electoral Formula - Ballot Structure Argentina - 1994 Constitutional changes - Two main parties o Class based o Less ideologically based - Peronists o Working class o Dominate presidential elections o Different modern factions - UCR o Middle Class - Major collapse in 2001 - Peronist Front for Victory - Nestor Kirchner o Dies - Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner Westminster Model - Parliamentary system - Head of state is only ceremonial - Political power concentrated in the executive - Little to no checks and balances - Executive dominates over the legislature o PM very powerful - Two party system based on SMP electoral system and biases to larger parties Relevant Regional Governments - Bicameralism - Judicial review - Relevant head of state - Use of referenda and citizen’s initiatives Chapter 9 Totalitarianism - Type of authoritarianism o Closed autocracy o Nazis o Communists - Monistic (unitary) but not monolithic center of power, and whatever pluralism of institutions or groups (that) exists derives its legitimacy from that center, is largely mediated by it, and is mostly political creation rather than an outgrowth of the dynamics of the preexisting society - There is an exclusive, autonomous, and more or less intellectually elaborate ideology (involving an ultimate utopian goal) with which the ruling group or leader and the party identify and which they use as a basis for policies - Citizen participation in and active mobilization for political and collective social tasks are encouraged, demanded, rewarded, and channeled through a single party and many monopolistic secondary groups. Passive obedience and apathy… characteristic of many authoritarian regimes, are considered undesirable by rulers - These steps take time to implement o Remove opposition o Replace organizations with those supported buy the state - Communist hierarchy (USSR) o Politburo 7-18 members o Central committee 150 members o Party Congress (5000 members meeting every five years) - Party structure exists but there are few official rules o Often difficulty with choosing new leaders - Soviet leaders: o Lenin o Stalin o Khrushchev o Brezhnev o Andropov o Cherenkov o Gorbachev - Unpredictable system of succession
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