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POLI 2310 Lecture Notes - Cristina Fernández De Kirchner, Single Transferable Vote, Liberal Democracy

Political Science
Course Code
POLI 2310
Alan Sairoff

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Comparative Politics
- The authority that a state has over a piece of territory
First World
- Economically developed
- “Western”
Second World
- Economically developed
- “Eastern”
Third World
- Undeveloped/developing
De Facto State
- Domestic control
- No international relations
- Northern Cyprus
- Somaliland
- Palestine
Sovereign State
- Domestic control
- International relations
De Jure State
- International relations
- No domestic control
- Iraq
- Former Yugoslavia
- States in civil war
- States occupied by a foreign power
Nature of authority
- Traditional (monarch)
- Legal/Rational (prime minister)
- Charismatic (Martin Luther King Jr.)
o No legal authority but has a large following
Developed Nations
- Industry
- Infrastructure
- Standard of living
- Political system is institutionalized
- Separation of powers
- Government has power throughout the entire territory
- Scope of government action
- Shift from traditional to legal authority

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Stages of Political Development
These steps should occur in order for smooth development
1. National identity
o Sense that people belong, “I am ______________”
o Unifying force
o Made easier by shared language, religion etc.
2. Political institutions
3. Elite political competition
o Political power amongst the upper class
4. Responsible government
o Development of a stable political system
o Transition to legal authority
5. Universal suffrage
Despite the fact that most western countries developed these steps over hundreds
of years, the modern attitude towards developing nations is to rush them along
through this process
State Classifications
- Effective
o Functional judicial system
o Effective government
o Basic education
o Control of territory
o Effective infrastructure
- Weak
o One or more of:
Government does not control some areas
State is seen as illegitimate by the people
Ineffective judicial system
Ineffective bureaucracy
o Poor infrastructure
- Collapsed
o No state authority
o Civil war
o Ethnic divisions
The Perfect State
- Central capital
- A circular shape
- Natural geography cooperates
- Ethnic Divisions
o Pashtuns 42%
o Tajiks 27%
o Hazara 9%
o Uzbeks 9%

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o Turkmen 2%
o Baluch 2%
- Geography limits effective borders, movement
- Primitive road networks
- Borders drawn for political reasons, not by ethnic boundaries
- Series of conflicts with the British over territory
- Khan accepts many of the British terms
o Durand line formed
o Tries to develop effective control over the country
- Soviet aid in development
- Attempts to placate ethnic groups
- Monarchy ends in 1973
- Communist Party took over in 1978 and took over the whole political system
o Didn‟t have much support outside the capital
o Year later, sought out Soviets for help and support
o Established control over much of the country
- Americans backed rebels, forcing Soviets into stalemate (could control capital and
some major cities that they already controlled)
- Americans forced Soviets out of country, but Soviets still financially and
militarily supported Afghanistan
- „91-92, Soviet Union explodes- unable to send aid to Afghanistan
- Collapsed state for a few years afterwards- no central power. Rebel groups
controlled various territories.
- Taliban gains control over much of the country
o Institutes various theocratic policies
o Tries to unify country
- Bush in his “infinite wisdom” decides to invade Iraq (and later Afghanistan) as
consequence of 9/11, destroying many of their forces.
o Decides it‟s better to not rebuild Afghanistan
- Karzai (check spelling) sought to intentionally weaken state to ensure there
wouldn‟t be political parties opposed to him
- Parties not on ballots, only candidate‟s name
- Electoral system “SMPE” multiple candidates running for the same party. People
vote against members of the same party, thus weakening the other parties.
- Sets up rules of the game to make it beneficial to him.
- After 2006 presidential elections, country became more stable. Taliban wasn‟t as
- Ethnic division became more prevalent in 2009 elections
- Corruption leading to weakening of entire political system, leading to more
people joining the Taliban to try to overthrow the government.
Chapter 3
Liberal Democracy
- Demos: People
- Cracy: Power
- Liberal democracies
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