Psychology 1000 Lecture Notes - Lecture 13: List Of Muppets, Antibody, Dementia

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19 Sep 2016
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Where does behaviour come from?
This is dependent on who you ask, and their views. Different specialists give you different answers.
Evolution
Behaviour has developed across time.
Development
What happened to you in your childhood, parental, social, and media influence.
Brain
Brain function is what controls the brain.
Motivation
Social cues, what your body tells you.
This narrows the time span; from wide, evolutionary types, to in the moment.
What programs behaviour developments?
Genes
Genes do not dictate intelligence. There are genes that influence your behaviour, however. You may have a genetic
background to active/inactive, etc.
Environment
Your environmental background dictates who you are. We believe in Western culture about the individual. In China,
for example, it is about the family. This is not a gene, but a way you are raised.
The interaction between Genes and your Environment
There are genes that are waiting for an environment to trigger their activity. If it never gets it, it never does what it is
meant to do.
Passive
Early in childhood one has very passive actions. Your parents control your environment.
Evocative
As you get older, it subtly changes, and you are able to evoke the kind of environment that you liked.
Active
You choose the environment you are in
Developmental Disorders: Time bomb in the brain
Some genetic or early environmental cause. There are diseases that wait until years and years after the birth of the child.
Schizophrenia —> 30 Years
Huntington’s —> 50 years
Alzheimer’s —> 70 Years
If it’s late adolescence, early adulthood, the brain matures very slowly, and it reaches maturity at early adulthood, particularly
the front of the brain.
Alzheimer’s doesn’t develop until the 60’s and 70’s. Radiation, pollution, stress, etc, seems to almost accumulate, and all
these things going wrong catches up with you. Another possibility s that the older you get, your metabolism and cognitive
functioning slows down, and gets below a low level.
Huntington’s disorder is different.It is programmed by a single, dominant genes. This appears in your 40’s and 50’s, and you
will develop the disorder. There is nothing you can do about it. (Cholera) which is a lack of control, which leads to dementia
and executive functioning.
What Might Cause A Developmental Disorder
Genes
Poor prenatal environment
Stressful birth
Miserable childhood
Schizophrenia
Criminal
During a schizophrenic episode, individuals become violent
This is untrue. A few people become violent, but it is only a handful. This myth is used by media. They’re
more in danger of people being violent against them.
The majority of people with schizophrenia suffer from substance abuse problems, excluding smoking.
This is untrue. Smoking turns out to be different; smoking helps people with schizophrenia, with the release of
dopamine. It helps, but it wears off fast.
Less than 10% of individuals with this illness end up in prison
True. It is about 5%.
Social
Over 25% of individual with schizophrenia are homeless
Untrue. Only about 1%.
Over half of individuals with schizophrenia are able to work part time
This is true. It is a difficult disease, but it is something to deal with.
Individuals or people close to them are not able to predict when a schizophrenic episode will occur
Untrue. The first time they may not know whats happening, but with time, they are able to sense the slide into
an episode.
Casual
An increases amount of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the brain is associated with having schizophrenia
True.
All individuals with schizophrenia experience hallucinations and delusions
False. Not all do.
Problems during a women’s pregnancy can cause children to have the diesel later in life
True. This is part of the poor prenatal.
Demographic
More men are diagnosed with schizophrenia than women
False. Men are just diagnosed earlier. Women tend to be older when they get it.
Individuals with the disease experience multiple personalities
False. The media is a problem that portrays this. Multiple personalities is a totally different disease.
Hundreds of individuals living in Lethbridge suffer from schizophrenia
True. It is not an uncommon disorder, and fortunately most people can deal with it reasonably well. 1/100
people have it.
What is Schizophrenia?
Not split personality - split from reality
Young adult onset, and can be very sudden
1% o the population, but there is a lifetime venerability
Cluster of behaviour and reports.
Criteria for Schizophrenia
At least two of the following:
Delusions
Believing in something that isn’t true. You must also maintain this belief. They may believe that God has told
them that they much do something.
Hallucinations
Receiving things that aren’t actually out there in the world; seeing, tasting, hearing, etc. This is probably
because of a disruption in the left cortex, and can hear voices. This can get them in trouble because they listen
to voices. These voices tend to be negative, and terribly disruptive.
Disorganized speech
Speech can be difficult, and get derailed. It is one long thought that gets derailed. They may do associations
and following them down the way. They may also repeat words consistently.
Grossly disorganized behaviour
It is completely outside the norm of what somebody would do. For example, walking around in public naked
and whatnot.
Negative symptoms of affect, logic, or will.
Showing no emotion, or showing inappropriate emotions. Negative systems of logic, like not understanding if
its raining, they need an umbrella. Having problems even getting up out of bed, or getting motivated to do
things.
Must be worse in functioning in daily life.
At least six months of disturbance.
Schizophrenia’s Illness Path
Sometimes they go through and recover. Others relapse. Others get worse. Others stay consistent.
Where Are They?
Paid Workers 20%
Invisible or Cured 20%
With Parents 17%
Homemakers 13%
Rooming House 10%
Suicide 10%
Shelters/YMCA 5%
Jail 3%
Institutionalized 2%
Homeless 1%
How Do You Tell Genetic Influence?
Look at relatives (they share genes) But relatives give your environment. Those in adoption sometimes have the same issues.
Those with first-degree relatives (children, siblings, parents, twins, etc) have a higher risk of having it if they do
Simple Gene Model
Single Recessive? No.
No gene influence? No
Multiple genes, is interactive with the environment, and has a history of a family with diseases.
We don’t know why people have schizophrenia. We just know that they have these behaviour.
Specific Genes? DISC1
Traced in several families from Europe, but when tested in Japan, it was not there.
Present in members with major mental illnesses
Protein interacts with other proteins, especially early in development.
The development might go wrong, giving you a higher risk
The scaffolding for migration of the never cells?
The mouse model. Scientists are hoping to look at neuronal development in mice, and trace what happens.
Combined model of causes
Single rare genes
Most common specific gene, plus polygenes and environment
Polygenes - mutlifactorials and interacting with a high risk combos and environment
Primarially environmental
When Does The Enviroment Act?
Prenatal
Eg. The mother going through an influenza outbreak (not getting the flu), and her antibodies might do something to
the brain.
The Dutch Hunger Winter. During the end of the WWII, the Dutch rose against the Germans, and the Germans drew
them out (1944-1945). Years later, they looked at the boys coming for military service, they found an increase in
schizophrenia, especially in the second trimester.
Perinatal
Birth compilations can cut off oxygen, though this is more likely to develop cerebral palsy.
Childhood
The environment
Onset of sustained stress
Can draw it out.
Family Dynamic
Early view was that overprotective, cold parents could cause this, however, this turned out to not be true.
Developing con tries do better with schizophrenia.
Can we get rid of it?
Yes and no.
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Document Summary

This is dependent on who you ask, and their views. What happened to you in your childhood, parental, social, and media influence. This narrows the time span; from wide, evolutionary types, to in the moment. There are genes that influence your behaviour, however. You may have a genetic background to active/inactive, etc. We believe in western culture about the individual. In china, for example, it is about the family. This is not a gene, but a way you are raised. There are genes that are waiting for an environment to trigger their activity. If it never gets it, it never does what it is meant to do. Early in childhood one has very passive actions. As you get older, it subtly changes, and you are able to evoke the kind of environment that you liked. There are diseases that wait until years and years after the birth of the child.

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