Psychology 1000 Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: List Of Muppets

61 views1 pages
19 Sep 2016
School
Department
Professor
Categorization
We do it all the time; we know chairs are chairs, jackets are jackets, etc.
It’s very automatics, and we do it all the time without awareness.
It’s very much like reading
However, we must be making a decision about what we are seeing. However, the process of this decision is not
available to us.
So how do we learn to make these automatic decisions?
A recap of theories
Classical - For example, a dog is a dog because has characteristics true of all dogs; sharp teeth, non-retractable
claws, barks, etc. If it has enough of these defining characteristics of this dog, then it is a dog, if not, it is something
else. It’s a very rule based theory, and therefore, has it’s own issues.
For example, the idea of a bachelor. This is an unmarried, man. But when you put it to real life, it becomes
more difficult. Is a priest a bachelor? Is a gay man in a long-term relationship?
Prototype - A dog is a dog because matches a dog prototype (an average or an ideal) better than any other. We
keep a running average in our head what we think is an ‘ideal’ or an ‘average’. Every time we see a new dog or
whatnot, we update our ideal or prototype.
Exemplar (instance) - A dog is a dog because is looks like a specific dog; Lassie, Benjie, RinTinTin, etc. We compare
it to specific things we see, over an average.
How do we test these theories?
Whittlesea in 1987 set up a situation to test whether people were using prototypes or exemplars to make their
decisions. He had two categories of made up words; these made up words were made up on two made up words,
furig and nobal, and then showed them variations on the theme, with two letters being different from the original.
Furig would be in the middle of the circle, and then each layer of the circle would change its letters, with each ring
representing letters away from the original. Pekig and Fykig would be examples of this.
He found that people work more on their specifics than their prototypes.
The experiment you run (including the situation you set up and the materials you use) will depend on what you think
people are doing.
How does one figure out what the rules are?
Learning classification rules
Explicit learning of rules - is the story finished once the person knows the rule? Or is there something else interesting going
on?
Lepton Demonstration
Short legs or long legs, 2 or 6 legs, angular or round body, spots or no spots, short neck or long neck.
The decision you make are digger leptons or builder leptons.
Long legs, angular bodies and spots means it’s a builder lepton. Otherwise it’s a digger.
A builder has at least 2 of
Long legs
Angular body
Spots
If you use a rule, it won’t matter, if you use your memory, it does matter.
What would rule-based responding look like?
We would expect very few errors because the rule will always give you the right answer.
What would episodic responding look like?
More errors on the negative matches.
No rule group - never told rules
40 trial of training (8 items x 5 times)
40 trials of test (32 old, 8 new)
No rule group got positive matches well ,but negative matches poorly. They use their memories, but there is
nothing else to go on. No one in this group figures out what the rule actually is.
Rule group - simple predictive rule
40 trial of training (8 items x 5 times)
40 trials of test (32 old, 8 new)
The rule group ended up half way between. 0 they had low error rates on the positive matches, but more
errors on the negative matches, but less than the no rule group.
People’s immediate response was being driven by memory by former cases, but then by the rules. It was an
automatic response from former cases, but the rule helped them correct themselves.
Were episodic effects due to a push for speed? Perhaps if you push the speed away, and focus on accuracy, the errors will
go away.
Instructions to be fast and accurate
Speed Instructions
Sacrifice accuracy, and make errors on the negative matches.
Accuracy Instructions
The effect slightly goes away, but the positive and negative matches are about the same, but the
despise time is about the same as before.
“Alert” Instructions
Told to make no errors. Told to watch out for items that look similar, but aren’t. There were twice as
many errors on the negative matches as the positives, however, though they have slowed down
substantially.
Surprising places where memory for prior examples plays an important role in rule based classification
Leptons
Not necessary
Costly when it comes to errors
Hard to ignore
Dermatology
Conclusions so far
People use examples , even with a rule
Hard to control and can’t ignore
When would you expect for this to come up in prior cases?
Are there situations when you would not elect people to be affected by similar old items?
When the stimuli are not recognizable, congiural units, they are more difficult to place.
Drawings - Same material as rule group
Feature lists - same info but written out.
If there is no basis for similarity, it makes it more difficult.
An exemplar strategy is an important, wisely used categorization process, and people use it when its not necessary and when it has
costs.
Robust, not just because
Rule too complex
rule has not yet been learned
time pressure
can’t be bothered
Natural, not just an arbitrary special case.
Sensible - few negative matches in the world.
Why use artificial materials?
Gives you greater control over the dimensions of variation, over similarity between items, over previous exposure, etc.
What do you build into your materials?
Some characteristics of the natural situation you are trying to model. The background sets an expectation for what you are
going to see.
Other handy characteristics.
Unlock document

This preview shows half of the first page of the document.
Unlock all 1 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Document Summary

We do it all the time; we know chairs are chairs, jackets are jackets, etc. It"s very automatics, and we do it all the time without awareness. However, we must be making a decision about what we are seeing. However, the process of this decision is not available to us. Classical - for example, a dog is a dog because has characteristics true of all dogs; sharp teeth, non-retractable claws, barks, etc. If it has enough of these defining characteristics of this dog, then it is a dog, if not, it is something else. It"s a very rule based theory, and therefore, has it"s own issues. But when you put it to real life, it becomes more difficult. Prototype - a dog is a dog because matches a dog prototype (an average or an ideal) better than any other. We keep a running average in our head what we think is an ideal" or an average".

Get access

Grade+
$10 USD/m
Billed $120 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
40 Verified Answers
Study Guides
Booster Classes
Class+
$8 USD/m
Billed $96 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
30 Verified Answers
Study Guides
Booster Classes