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PSYC 2110 (10)

Why Study, Continued

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PSYC 2110
Fangfang Li

Why Study Cont... January-11-13 11:59 AM - Raising children ○ Create best possible atmosphere - Choosing social policies - Understanding human nature ○ Yourself, better Major Themes, continued - Continuity vs Discontinuity ○ Is developmental change just a matter of degreeor a matter of kind? ○ Tiny tree into big tree (cont) ○ Butterfly metamorphosis (discont)  Question we're asking isn't physical  Childpsychology □ How they think □ How they reason □ How they interact □ Continuously or grow in stages? - Mechanisms of Change ○ How does change occur? How do we go from being babies to who we are today?  What mechanismsunderlythose changes?  Less explored before because it's hard to study □ Some of the challengesin investigatingchildren's development Only covering these four themesespecially. Less focus on the final three themes The Science - Some non-scientific methods ○ Commonsense:  That which is self-evident ○ Tenacity  What wehave known to be true in the past  It has alwaysbeen so ○ Authority  Opinion  Because my mother, grandmother said so  Consult books written by child psychologists ○ Intuition  I felt so  It is true to me - Scientific method refers to bodies of techniques for investigatingphenomena, acquiring new knowledgeor correcting and integrating previousknowledge ○ Trying to update our knowledgelevel  Empirical (vs normative) □ Not based on what you think □ Not what other people said □ Empirically tested  Replicate it no matter who does it □ We cannot say something is true because it's standard  Taking babiesaway from mom right after birth ◊ Not necessarilytrue  Objective (vs subjective)  Systematic (vs. random)  Systematic (vs. random)  Rigourous (vs. sloppy) Process: - Observing - Testing - Repeating Want to correlate smoking and birth defects - For wholepopulation? ○ Can't test everysinglewoman in this world.  Haveto take a sample ○ Can be tricky, especiallyif you pick a population not representative  Must do random selection of samplesthat are representativeof the population  Double-blind: preventing bias in conducting scientific experiments □ Both experimenterand subjects must be blind Reliability - A test isreliableif it consistently measures something: ○ Interrater reliability:the amount of agreementin the observations of different raters to who witness the samebehavior ○ Test-retest reliability:the degreeof similarityof a child's performance on two or more occasions. Validity - A measureis validif it m
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