Why Study Cont...
- Raising children
○ Create best possible atmosphere
- Choosing social policies
- Understanding human nature
○ Yourself, better
Major Themes, continued
- Continuity vs Discontinuity
○ Is developmental change just a matter of degreeor a matter of kind?
○ Tiny tree into big tree (cont)
○ Butterfly metamorphosis (discont)
Question we're asking isn't physical
□ How they think
□ How they reason
□ How they interact
□ Continuously or grow in stages?
- Mechanisms of Change
○ How does change occur? How do we go from being babies to who we are today?
What mechanismsunderlythose changes?
Less explored before because it's hard to study
□ Some of the challengesin investigatingchildren's development
Only covering these four themesespecially. Less focus on the final three themes
- Some non-scientific methods
That which is self-evident
What wehave known to be true in the past
It has alwaysbeen so
Because my mother, grandmother said so
Consult books written by child psychologists
I felt so
It is true to me
- Scientific method refers to bodies of techniques for investigatingphenomena, acquiring new
knowledgeor correcting and integrating previousknowledge
○ Trying to update our knowledgelevel
Empirical (vs normative)
□ Not based on what you think
□ Not what other people said
□ Empirically tested
Replicate it no matter who does it
□ We cannot say something is true because it's standard
Taking babiesaway from mom right after birth
◊ Not necessarilytrue
Objective (vs subjective)
Systematic (vs. random) Systematic (vs. random)
Rigourous (vs. sloppy)
Want to correlate smoking and birth defects
- For wholepopulation?
○ Can't test everysinglewoman in this world.
Haveto take a sample
○ Can be tricky, especiallyif you pick a population not representative
Must do random selection of samplesthat are representativeof the population
Double-blind: preventing bias in conducting scientific experiments
□ Both experimenterand subjects must be blind
- A test isreliableif it consistently measures something:
○ Interrater reliability:the amount of agreementin the observations of different raters to
who witness the samebehavior
○ Test-retest reliability:the degreeof similarityof a child's performance on two or more
- A measureis validif it m