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Experimental Design


Course Code
Psychology 2110
Fangfang Li

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Correlational designs examine the relationship between two variables
Just because there's a correlation, that doesn't mean it's causal
The more time spent on reading, the higher reading achievement scores
Positive correlation:
Don't know which one is causing which
Both things could be caused by a common third variable
Third-variable problem
Correlation does not equal causation
The relationship between two variables is known as their correlation
Index of strength and direction of relation
Varies from -1.00 to +1.00
+.70 and -.70 are equally strong and both are stronger than +.35 and -.35
Strength indicated by absolute value
0 = no correlation
What is r?
Direction indicated by sign
+ means that one increases, the other also increases
- means that as one increases, the other decreases (an inverse relationship)
More about r
Need to know what it is, and how to interpret it
General Research Designs
Greater time spent reading might mean higher reading score, BUT greater reading skill can
also motivate the child and lead to more time spent reading.
Correlation does not tell you directionality:
There may be a third variable
Correlation does not equal Correlation
Correlations + Experimental Design
12:02 PM
Intro to Child Development Page 1
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