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PSYC 2110 (10)

Prenatal development

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PSYC 2110
Fangfang Li

Prenatal Development January-18-13 12:01PM - DNA: a molecule encoding the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all living things - Gene: a locatable region of genomic sequence, corresponding to a unit of inheritance. - Chromosome: an organized structureof SNA and protein found in cells - Gamete: reproductive cell - Meiosis: process of cell division that produces gametes ○ Enables organisms to reproduce sexually ○ Involves two divisions producing a total of four daughter cells - Crossing-over: adjacent duplicated chromosomes cross and break at one point or many points along their length, exchanging segments of genetic material - Conception: ○ Fertilization: union of the sperm from father and the egg from mother, each of which contains half the genetic material ○ 24 hour window: sperm has tomeet with the egg before egg dies ○ Zygote:50% DNA from both mom and dad. Single cell.  Hours after: □ The mitotic divisions after fertilization occur without much growth between divisions resulting progressively smaller cells □ Blastocyst: the ball of cells formed when the fertilized egg first begins to divide □ Implantation occurs when the blastocyst burrows into the lining of the uterus  Periods of zygote: □ Starts when egg is fertilized □ Ends 2 weeks later when implantation occurs ○ Amnion: membrane surrounds the developing embryo, serving to regulate its temperature and to cushion it against injuries ○ Chorion: a membrane that is attachedto the uterine tissues to gather nourishments for the embryo ○ York sac: producing blood cells until the embryo is capable of producing its own ○ Placenta:an organ that provides for respiration and nourishment of the unborn child and elimination of its metabolic wastes ○ Umbilical cord: a soft tube containing blood vessels that connects the embryo to the placenta The period of embryo: - Starts from implantation to the end of week 8 ○ Embryonic disk develops into three cell layers: Outer layer: nervous system, skin, hair   Mid layer: muscles, bones  Inner layer: digestive system, lungs, urinary tract,etc Zygote Conception to 2 weeks Rapid cell division takes place Embryo 3rd to 8th week Following implantation, development takes place through the processes of cell division, cell migration, cell differentiation and cell death Fetus 9th week until birth Continual development of physical structuresand rapid growth of the body increasing levels of behavior sensory experience and learning. Four major developmental processes transform a zygote intro an embryo and then a fetus: 1. Cell division results in the proliferat
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