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Psychology 2110 Lecture Notes - Paul Ekman, Perfect Group, Emotion Classification


Course Code
Psychology 2110
Fangfang Li

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Are emotions innate or acquired?
At the beginning of life, emotions are distinct or undifferentiated?
Nature and emergence of emotions
Gestures not universal, but maybe emotions (closest thing we have to a universal language)
Couldn’t understand languages where he travelled, but the emotional expressions
were universal
Darwin: regardless of their culture, everyone expresses emotions exactly the same way
Few if any outsiders
No tv
Ekman had to find an isolated culture
Showed them photographs and told a story, asked for them to point at person
who fit the story
Found perfect group in New Guinea
1967 - Ekman set out to settle a dispute about human emotion
Six emotions
Congenitally blind people make same expressions
Paul Ekman and how he investigated this idea of universal emotions
Angry, blood goes to arms, heart races, prepares you to fight
Evolutionary purpose = each emotion prepares body for specific action
Expressions = essential for survival
We share them with other animals
Basic emotions
Development of Emotional Expression
First month
Reflex response
3rd month
Social smiles toward people
7th month
Toward familiar people; encourages interaction and bonding
By 2nd month:
When an infant controls an event
By 3rd or 4th month
During activities (ie, play)
Almost 12 months
Response to unexpected events
During 2nd year
Response to own behavior or attempting to make others laugh
Positive emotions
Generalized distress
Hard to asses in infants, suggesting undifferentiated distress early in life
Negative emotions
Are emotions universal?
12:04 PM
Intro to Child Development Page 1
Newborns: hunger, pain, overstimulation
Generalized distress
2nd month: visible facial expression matches situation
Anger and Sadness
6-7 months to 2 years: fear of strangers
7-12 months; fear of novel toys, noises, sudden movements (gets parents to
Put them into daycare before 8 months or around 2-3 years of age,
everything is fine.
Girls exhibit higher degrees of separation anxiety than boys
Boys who exhibit Gender Identity Disorder in Children also commonly
exhibit elevated traits of childhood separation anxiety
8 months to 13-15 months: separation anxiety
Fear and distress
15-24 months: embarrassment
2 year old: guilt and shame
3 year old: Pride
Depend on how we understand ourselves and our relationship to others
Self-conscious Emotions
A feeling of remorse and regret, focused on the
consequences of one's wrongdoing and those
affected by it
Focused on the self and need to hide
following exposure
I've done something wrong
There is something wrong with me
I've made a mistake
I am a mistake
What did was not good
I am no good
Guilt and Shame
An aspect of personality concerned with emotional dispositions and their speech and intensity
(the mood pattern)
Easy babies: 40% of infants; adjust easily to new situations, quickly establish routines, are
generally cheerful and easy to calm
Difficult babies: 10% of infants; slow to adjust to new experiences, likely to react negatively
and intensely to stimuli and events
Slow to warm up babies: 15% of infants: somewhat difficult at first, but become easier over
Thomas and Chess's Temperament Types
Related to adulthood depression
Baydar (1995)
Temperaments of unintended/intended children
Definition: abilities that are key to competent social functioning, good predictor of how
well people do in life (and may be bettwer than IQ)
Motivate oneself
Persistance when frustrated
Impulse control
Delay gratification
EQ (Emotional Intelligence)
Development of Emotional Regulation
Intro to Child Development Page 2
Delay gratification
Identify one's own feelings
Identify other's feelings
Regulate mood
Regulate emotions
Internal feeling states
Emotion-related physiological processes
Emotion-related cognitions
Emotion-related behavior
A compex process that involves initiating, ihibiting or modulating
Emotional self-regulation
Intro to Child Development Page 3