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PSYC 2110 (10)

Are Emotions Universal?

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PSYC 2110
Fangfang Li

Are emotions universal? March-20-13 12:04 PM Nature and emergenceof emotions - Are emotions innate or acquired? - At the beginningof life, emotions are distinct or undifferentiated? Paul Ekman and how he investigatedthis idea of universal emotions - Gestures not universal,but maybe emotions (closest thing we have to a universal language) - 1967 - Ekman set out to settle a dispute about human emotion ○ Darwin: regardlessof their culture, everyoneexpresses emotions exactly the same way  Couldn’t understand languageswhere he travelled, but the emotional expressions were universal ○ Ekman had to find an isolated culture  Few if any outsiders  No tv ○ Found perfect group in NewGuinea  Showed them photographs and told a story, asked for them to point at person who fit the story - Six emotions ○ Joy ○ Anger ○ Sadness ○ Surprise ○ Fear ○ Disgust ○ Contempt - Congenitallyblind people makesame expressions Expressions = essential for survival - Evolutionary purpose = each emotion prepares body for specific action ○ Angry, blood goes to arms, heart races, prepares you to fight Basic emotions - We share them with other animals Developmentof Emotional Expression Positiveemotions - Smile First month Reflexresponse 3rd month Social smilestoward people 7th month Toward familiarpeople; encourages interaction and bonding - Happiness By 2nd month: When an infant controls an event - Laughing By 3rd or 4th month During activities(ie, play) Almost12 months Response to unexpected events During 2nd year Response to own behavior or attempting to make others laugh Negativeemotions - Hard to asses in infants, suggesting undifferentiated distress earlyin life Generalizeddistress ○ Generalizeddistress  Newborns: hunger, pain, overstimulation ○ Angerand Sadness  2nd month: visiblefacial expressionmatches situation ○ Fear and distress  6-7 months to 2 years: fear of strangers  7-12 months; fear of novel toys, noises, sudden movements(gets parents to respond)  8 months to 13-15 months: separation anxiety □ Put them into daycare before 8 months or around 2-3
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