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PSYC 3325 (30)
John Usher (30)


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PSYC 3325
John Usher

THE MENTAL HEALTH PROFESSIONS  Clinician- a health professional authorized to provide services to ppl suffering from one or more pathologies  Clinical psychologist- an indiv who has earned a Ph.D degree in psychology or a Psy.D and whose training has included an internship in a mental hospital or clinic. Entails 4 to 7 yrs of graduate study  A psych may have a either a doctoral or a M.A degree  In some areas psych are for doctoral level and psych associates are for M.A  1995 Agreement on Internal Trade (AIT) was developed so credentials of psych would be recognized from one part of Canada’s would be recognized in other parts  mutual agreement was signed in June 2001. person has to have obtained 5 core competencies in order to become registered as a psych 1) interpersonal relationships 2) assessment and evaluation (including diagnosis) 3)intervention and consultation 4) research 5)ethics and standards  training for a Ph.D in clinical psych is similar to that in other psych specialities. It requires a heavy emphasis on lab work, research design, statistics and the empirically based study of human and animal beh. The Ph.D is a research degree and are require to research and write on it. Those in clinical psych learn two more things 1) learn technique of assessment and diagnosis of metal disorders----- Diagnosis- the determination that a patient’s set of symptoms or problems indicates a particular disorder  -2) they practise psychotherapy --a primarily verbal mans of helping troubled indiv change their thoughts, feelings and behaviours to reduce distress and to achieve greater life satisfaction  the new Psy.D degree (doctor of psych) is similar to Ph.D but there is less emphasis on research and more on clinical training. The Ph.D is more of a scientific practitioner model and the Psy.D is more of a scholar practitioner model  psychiatrist- a physician (M.D) who has taken specialized post doctoral training called a residency in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental disorders  Psychoactive drugs – chemical compounds having a psychological effect that alters mood or thought process. Ex: valium  Psychoanalyst- a therapist who has taken specialized postdoctoral training in psychoanalysis after earning an M.D or a Ph.D degree. Can take up to 10 yrs of graduate work  Social worker- a mental health professional who holds a master of social work (M.S.W) degree  Counselling psychologist- a doctoral level mental health professional whose training is similar to that of a clinical psychologist though usually with less emphasis on research and serious psychopathology  Psychiatric nurse- a nurse who has obtained additional training in the mental health field HISTORY OF PSYCHOPATHOLOGY Early demonology  Demonology- the doctrine that an evil being such as the devil may dwell within a person and control his or her mind and body. Ex found in records of early Chinese, Egyptians, Babylon’s and Greeks  Since they thought ab beh was caused by possession its treatment involved  exorcism -- the casting out of evil spirits by ritualistic chanting or torture. Elaborate rites of prayer, noisemaking, forcing the afflicted to drink terrible tasting brews, and flogging/starvation  Trepanning (of skulls) - the act of making a surgical opening in a living skull by stone age or Neolithic cave dwellers was quite widespread. This act was sometimes performed cuz of the belied that it would allow evil spirits to leave the body  Thought evil sprits would escape through the opening. Introduced into Americas from Siberia. The practise was most common in Peru and Bolivia three aboriginal specimens have been found in Canada in B.C  The openings were located in the same area in all three, the upper central occipital SOMATOGENESIS  Hippocrates – father of modern medicine separated medicine from religion, magic and superstition. He rejected the Greek belief that the gods sent serious physical diseased an mental disturbances as punishment and insisted instead that such illnesses had natural causes  H. regarded the brain as the organ of consciousness, of intellectual life and emotion; thus he thought that deviant thinking and beh were indications of some kind of brain pathology. H is often considered one of the very earliest proponents of somatogenesis – the notion that something wrong with the soma or physical body, disturbs thought and action.  Psychogenesis- in contrast is the belief that a disturbance has psych origins  H. classified mental disorders into 3 categories: mania, melancholia and phrenitis (or brain fever)  The ab beh became more imp for physicians than priests  For melancholia he prescribed tranquility, sobriety, care in choosing food and drink and abstinence from sexual activity  H. believed in natural rather than supernatural causes  Mental health was dependent on balance of four humours or fluids of the body: blood, black bile, yellow bile and phlegm. An imbalance produced disorders  Sluggish and dull the body contained a preponderance of phlegm. Black bile was the explanation for melancholia, too much yellow bile explained irritability and anxiousness and too much blood changeable temperament  H humoural physiology didn’t withstand but his basic statement that an beh is produced by some kind of psychical imbalance or even dance was good  H held a somatogenic view of ab beh co
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