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Psychology 3325 Lecture Notes - Sports Game, Amplified Bible, Beck Depression Inventory

Course Code
Psychology 3325
John Usher

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Depression is one of the most profound human experience because it is fundamentally
about loss
Depression involves wide range of symptoms, core features are persistent feelings of
sadness, despair, unpleasant mood, persistent inability to take routine or pleasurable
Two sides of face of depression, persistent of sadness and anti anehidonia (lack of pleasure
or joy)
Disturbances of sleep, appetite, difficulty with concentration, fatigue
Why do we as a species seem to have this predisposition, to become distressed (like how
anxiety was important to adapting to our environment) but what function does depression
What might be some of the reasons to why we are depressed
Evolutionary theory is the least disputed theory, organized principle and framework for all of
the life sciences, it postulates that there is variation in our design of features, some of us are
taller, shorter, weaker, stronger
Some of these design features are heritable (biological basis, we pass then on to our
Not all features are heritable, and to the extent that some of us have designed features
equip us to our peers to make us more superior, allow some to be better suited in
environment, reproduce better, survive longer
Those designed features that work well are passed along, the ones that don’t work well tend
to die off, and over time the more useful features tend to spread, so long as the
environment and the problems in the environment are the same, the features become
typical of the species (universal to all humans)
Things that seem to be good, overtime become typical of the species, what the species is
known for, e.g. the giraffe and their elongated necks
If we look at our species today and see something that is universal, its possible that that
thing evolved, and was adapted, since we all have it
We as a species have a peculiar universal, the capacity to be sad
If you study any group of people, at some point, everyone will report being sad, we as a
species are not vulnerable to this feeling, we all feel sad
Set of circumstances that can make anyone sad, universal, capacity of being sad and
depressed, none of us are immune, if that’s the case, perhaps there is some function of this,
why is it that at species has this predisposition
Depression is intermittently so maladaptive, very unproductive, less socialized, there are a
lot of things depressed people do that seem almost intermittently maladaptive, so how
could this be an evolved trait
The rank theory or social competition theory of depression, rank theorists think that over
the course of human evolution, resources were in scarceness, reproductively related to
resources, food, territory, things that matter to our survival and reproduction was not in
abundance, not enough to go around
As a result, members of the same species must compete for them, out of such competition
for resources, hierarchy emerges, some members will win more often than lose (top of the
Hierarchy is a summary of your wins to losses
And those who emerge at the top, have priority of access to all of resources
Hierarchy is a feature of just about any social organized species (a universal concept), so not
surprising that most species seemed to have evolved particular behavioural strategies to
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