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Psychology 3325 Lecture Notes - Consumer Reports, Counterintuitive, Psychoanalysis

Course Code
Psychology 3325
John Usher

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Counterintuitive things to learn and discover about process of psychotherapy
1997, when prof was 24, on his first internship, he has his first patient, and a supervisor, one
Monday he arrived to his office and found out his supervisor was gone, so he had this
patient with no supervisor which was extremely alarming, he was as good a therapist when
he started as he is today, underlying art of psychotherapy
Psychotherapy outcome literature, the literature that exists and concerns relative efficacy
and effectiveness of psychotherapy, do people get better, disclosure, revealing oneself, and
the role of disclosure in conveying a narrative, or one’s life story
Various schools of psychotherapy, three primary forces, psychodynamic, behavioural and
humanistic approaches of trying to remedy a patient
Psychoanalysis, psychodynamic model key ideas is conflict and production of anxiety, and
wide range of defences we have
Processes of producing change in psychoanalysis, transference is basic process in which
patient comes into office and projects their issues to therapist, and therapist role is to
interpret what is going on which produces resistance and insight
Cognitive behavioural approach to change, learning model where there is a situation,
behaviours and a consequence
Mechanisms we use to produce change, restructuring cognition and beliefs and testing them
(behavioural experiments)
Humanistic approach, how children become equipped with what it is we need to do to
attain love, a set of beliefs and thoughts, which we systematically internalize these
principles, to tell us how we should be in the world to be loved and accepted, many of their
traits are hidden and sealed to be accepted, humanists try to bring these traits out
Point of the slide is that different therapies seem to be very diverse, from a technical point
of view, what the analyst is doing seems very different from what the behaviourist and what
the humanist is doing, and they believe change is produced in very different ways, what
produces symptoms and how to treat them
Which form of therapy is the best? Hundred of controlled clinical trials have run these
various forms of therapies together, two different therapies and see which patient is better
off, and in conclusion of this research they sent out a survey to consumer reports to see
their various satisfaction, about 7000 readers responded to the mental health, and the
result of the survey was almost identical to the controlled clinical trials=
End result is: all therapy works, you are far better off being in a room with a therapist then
in a waiting room, psychotherapy on the whole works, and all of the therapies seem to be
equally effective
Years of experience, level of training, academic background doesn’t change your
qualification of being a therapeutic context, they perform equally well
Conclusion form the outcome literature is no differential efficacy despite technical diversity
This is known as the dodo bird effect, (in Alice in wonderland, the dodo bird was asked to
watch the race but it didn’t watch it and at the end it said that everyone won and should
receive prizes)
Explanation for why they are equal is that maybe there are differences that do exist but
were not finding them, all of the studies must be wrong because they cant possibly be
equal, were probably not measuring the changes that are occurring by the patients
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