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Lecture

Psychology 3325 Lecture Notes - Polygraph, Electrocardiography, Electrooculography


Department
Psychology
Course Code
Psychology 3325
Professor
John Usher

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The Dissociation Approach;
based on distinction between psychological process and our awareness of that process
hypnotic induction separates or isolates some psychological process form conscious
perception or control
version of this approach developed by Hilgard places particular attention on dissociation of
sensory experiences from conscious awareness suggests that hypnosis is particularly
extreme example of absent-mindedness episodes where conscious awareness of ongoing
stimulation is suppressed by suggestions of hypnotists
other versions of this approach suggest that this dissociation may extend to conscious control
of actions
dissociated control theories of hypnosis interpret responses to ideomotor and challenge
suggestions in terms of similar states key assumption is that behaviour may have hierarchy
of control centres; under hypnosis, higher levels of control become isolated form lower levels
special state in which awareness and conscious control centres of brain become isolated from
those controlling behaviour
dissociative explanation does not provide clear mechanism by which hypnotic induction can
produce dissociation
Sleep
sleep is not state of unconsciousness it is state of altered consciousness
two kinds of sleep two states of altered consciousness
The Stages of Sleep
orderly, predictable sequence of sleep stages
sleep research takes place in sleep labratories
polygraph instrument that records changes in physiological processes such as brain activity,
heart rate, and breathing
electroencephalogram (EEG) measurement and graphical presentation of electrical activity
of brain, recorded by means of electrodes attached to scalp; taken by polygraph
electromyogram (EMG) measurement and graphical presentation of electrical activity of
muscles, recorded by means of electrodes attached to skin above them; taken by polygraph
electrocardiogram (EKG) measurement and graphical presentation of electrical activity of
heart, recorded by means of electrodes attached to skin; taken by polygraph
electrooculogram (EOG) measurement and graphical presentation of electrical activity
caused by movements of eye, recorded by means of electrodes attached to skin adjacent to
eye; taken by polygraph
other transducers can detect respiration, sweating, skin or body temperature and variety of
other physiological states
Typical night's sleep:
EEG attached to scalp, EMG to chin, EKG to chest, EOG to skin around eyes
EEG distinguishes between alert and relaxed wakefulness
beta activity irregular, high-frequency, low- apllitude activity of EEG usually indicating
arousal or alertness
alpha activity rhythmical, medium-frequency, medium amplitude activity of EEG
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