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PSYC 3325 (30)
John Usher (30)
Lecture

The Dissociation Approach.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 3325
Professor
John Usher
Semester
Fall

Description
The Dissociation Approach; ● based on distinction between psychological process and our awareness of that process ● hypnotic induction separates or isolates some psychological process form conscious perception or control ● version of this approach developed by Hilgard places particular attention on dissociation of sensory experiences from conscious awareness – suggests that hypnosis is particularly extreme example of absent-mindedness episodes where conscious awareness of ongoing stimulation is suppressed by suggestions of hypnotists ● other versions of this approach suggest that this dissociation may extend to conscious control of actions ● dissociated control theories of hypnosis interpret responses to ideomotor and challenge suggestions in terms of similar states – key assumption is that behaviour may have hierarchy of control centres; under hypnosis, higher levels of control become isolated form lower levels ● special state in which awareness and conscious control centres of brain become isolated from those controlling behaviour ● dissociative explanation does not provide clear mechanism by which hypnotic induction can produce dissociation Sleep ● sleep is not state of unconsciousness – it is state of altered consciousness ● two kinds of sleep – two states of altered consciousness The Stages of Sleep ● orderly, predictable sequence of sleep stages ● sleep research takes place in sleep labratories ● polygraph – instrument that records changes in physiological processes such as brain activity, heart rate, and breathing ● electroencephalogram (EEG) – measurement and graphical presentation of electrical activity of brain, recorded by means of electrodes attached to scalp; taken by polygraph ● electromyogram (EMG) – measurement and graphical presentation of electrical activity of muscles, recorded by means of electrodes attached to skin above them; taken by polygraph ● electrocardiogram (EKG) – measurement and graphical presentation of electrical activity of heart, recorded by means of electrodes attached to skin; taken by polygraph ● electrooculogram (EOG) – measurement and graphical presentation of electrical activity caused by movements of eye, recorded by means of electrodes attached to skin adjacent to eye; taken by polygraph ● other transducers can detect respiration, sweating, skin or body temperature and variety of other physiological states ● Typical night's sleep:  EEG attached to scalp, EMG to chin, EKG to che
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