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Anatomy 200 - Cardiovascular System

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University of Alberta
David Begg

CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM Functions: - Maintains homeostasis - Transport of o Metabolites and wastes o Hormones and signal molecules o Dissolved gasses o Cells involved in immune and inflammatory responses - Regulation of body temperature Components: - Pump o The heart - Conducting vessels o Arteries (carry blood away from the heart) o Veins (carry blood to the heart) - Sites for exchange with tissues o Capillaries - Drainage system for excess tissue fluids o Lymphatic vessels Circulatory system - Pulmonary circuit to the lungs - Systemic circuit to the rest of the body Location of Heart - Mediastinum – a region of the thorax between the lungs o Contains the heart, esophagus, trachea, thymus gland, and large blood vessels - Heart is contained within the pericardial cavity - Pericardial cavity is formed by the pericardial sac (attached to diaphragm) Heart Valves - Right Atrium to Right Ventricle – Tricuspid Valve - Right Ventricle to Pulmonary Arteries – Pulmonary Semilunar Valve - Left Atrium to Left Ventricle – Bicuspid (Mitral) Valve - Left Ventricle to Aorta – Aortic Semilunar Valve Conduction System - Sinoatrial Node (beats each time it depolarizes) - Atrioventricular node (depolarized by Sinoatrial node) - Bundle of His - Right and Left bundle branches - Purkinje fibers Blood Vessel Layers - Tunica interna o Simple squamous epithelium o Thin layer of connective tissue - Tunica media o Thickest layer o Elastic fibers and smooth muscle - Tunica externa o Connective tissue o Attaches vessel to surrounding connective tissue Types of Vessels - Elastic (Conducting) Arteries o Largest diameter arteries o Tunica media contains high density of elastic fibers o Stretch and recoil due to pumping of heart - Muscular (Distributing) Arteries o Medium-sized o Carry blood to skeletal muscles and internal organs o Tunica media contains mostly smooth muscle o Able to vasoconstrict (close) and vasodilate (open) - Arterioles o Small to microscopic o Almost no tunica externa o Media has a few smooth muscle cells o Delivers blood to capillaries - Capi
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