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Anatomy 200 - Endocrine System

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University of Alberta
David Begg

Endocrine System Glands - All glandular tissue is derived embryologically from epithelium - Glandular epithelium contains specialized cells that synthesize, store and secrete chemicals - Two types of glands: exocrine and endocrine - Exocrine glands o Release secretions into ducts that carry them to the body surface (sweat, salivary) - Endocrine glands o Release their secretions into sinusoids (large, extracellular spaces) o Sinusoids pass secretions to the capillaries o Circulatory system then carries the secretions to the target site o Examples – thyroid, pituitary, adrenal The endocrine system is the collection of glands and tissues of the body that secrete chemical messengers. This integrates the activities of organs and organ systems throughout the body. The nervous and endocrine systems function together to maintain homeostasis. Neuroendocrinology is the close association between endocrine and nervous systems. The brain regulates secretion from endocrine glands and hormones modify CNS functions. Nerve cells and gland cells are similar too: both secrete chemical messengers that act on target cells and both release similar substances (dopamine, norepinephrine, somatostatin) – which can act as neurotransmitters, neural hormones or classic hormones. Nervous System Endocrine System - Produces responses that: - Produces responses that: o Are highly specific o Are not specific o Act over short time o Act over long time - Responses generated by neurons - Responses produced by hormones o Signals are electrical impulses o Signals are chemical substances conducted along axons o Released by endocrine glands o Chemical messengers conduct o Circulate in bloodstream the impulse between neurons The major differences between the two systems include the specificity, length of time and method of transportation. Hormones - A chemical messenger o Produces and secreted by endocrine cells or tissue o Travels through circulatory system to reach other tissues o Acts upon specific target cells in tissues - Bind to specific cellular receptors - Presence or absence of a receptor determines the cell’s response to a hormone o More receptors = more sensitive Anterior Pituitary Hormones Human Growth Hormone hGH Stimulates body growth and metabolism (maintenance later in life) Thyroid Stimulating Hormone TSH Controls thyroid gland functions Follicle Stimulating FSH/LH Control secretion of sex hormones and production Hormone/Luteinizing Hormone of gametes Prolactin Prl Stimulates milk production, sexual gratification, functions as growth factor Adrenocorticotropic Hormone ACTH Controls hormone secretion by adrenal cortex Melanocyte Stimulating MSH Stimulates melanin secretion Hormone Posterior Pituitary Hormones Antidiuretic ADH Regulates concentration of urine (conc. Of 2 O and electrolytes in blood) and Hormone functions in regulation of blood pressure Oxytocin Stimulates muscle contraction during childbirth, ejaculatio
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