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Anatomy 200 - Respiratory System

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David Begg

The Respiratory System Functions of the Respiratory System - Exchange of gas between the atmosphere and the blood o Uptake of O 2nd release of CO 2 o Respiratory area of around 70 square meters - Filtration, temperature regulation and humidification of inspired air - Olfaction – sense of smell - Production of sound Hilus – Site where blood vessels, lymphatics, nerves and airways enter and leave lungs Pleura - Parietal pleura – covers body wall - Visceral pleura – covers lung - Pleural cavity – space between visceral and parietal pleura Major Airways (from biggest to smallest): Trachea  Primary bronchi  Secondary bronchi  Tertiary bronchi  Bronchioles  Terminal bronchioles (conduction of air)  Respiratory bronchioles (respiration begins)  Alveolar ducts (made up entire of alveoli)  Alveolar sac If it has a cartilage, it’s a bronchus; if it doesn’t, it’s a bronchiole. Structure/Function of the Airway Wall - Cartilage – Found in larger airways, helps keep airways open - Smooth muscle – Found in smaller airways, controls diameter of airway and constricts to control airflow (or relax to increase airflow) - Elastic fibers – Found in smaller airways and respiratory portion, elastic recoil provides force for expiration Every inhale, elastic fibers stretch (uses muscles). Every exhale, elastic fibers fling back (no muscles used) Asthma Attack - Smooth muscle in wall of bronchioles contracts - Contraction caused by parasympathetic stimulation and mediators of allergic reactions (histamine) - Muscle contraction reduces airflow - Bronchioles most numerous airways - Therefore provide greatest resistance to airflow Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease - Reduced ability to expire air from lungs due to breakdown of alveolar walls (which produces abnormally large air space). This leads to lowered surface area for gas exchange and a reduced respiratory efficiency. There’s also reduced elastic recoil due to loss of elastic fibers. - Causes include smoking and other irritants (pollution, du
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