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AN SC110 (12)
Lecture

Equine Breeding

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Department
Animal Science
Course
AN SC110
Professor
Doug Milligan
Semester
Fall

Description
Lecture 1 for finalNovember 15, 2011 Breeding **assignment due December 6** Considerations BEFORE breeding • Identify weaknesses + strengths able to select for things, its hard to select for things if you don’t know what they are! Can be subjective • Environment reared Want a cow horse? Rear around cows. They will be best suited to work in an environment that they are reared in. • Special care + training have the genes and the form to function soundly, put them in the hands of the best trainers so they have the best opportunity to run as best as they can. Can be a bonus to allow us to identify the best horses. If a super horse is in poor hands, we do not know the capabilities of the horse may have in the breeding shack. . • Pets no room for pets in the breeding industry! Stallion or mare must prove themselves to be worthy of breeding ( right genetics, capabilities etc) • Capabilities breeding horses to function and form, lets ensure they have the correct capabilities. Ex sport horses, hunters + jumpers. Commercial-ness is in BIG horses (16-17) hands Breeding Systems • Grading up want to breed a mare to a stallion that is BETTER than her. Ensures next generation is better • Cross-breeding mate individuals of two different breeds( hunters are often thoroughbreds +arabs). Creates heterozygosity, prevents genetic defects + increase soundness • Out-breeding WITHIN the same breed, but individuals are not related (NO common ancestors) • In-breeding have at LEAST 1 common ancestor on both sire and dam side. Creates homozygosity, brings genes together, increases predictability. IN breeding fixes a particular trait ( homozygous). Cannot select for it anymore. Its there, • Line-breeding in breeding, but concentration the genetics of a particular individual back down the pedigree. Effect on Progress • Number of traits • Heritability measures degree to which progress is due to genetics. Measures the percent of the trait that is controlled by the genes. What portion of the end result is due to genetics. Takes out environment • Size of herd more foals to pick from, better chance for progress as you can pick the best stock • Starting level start lower, more chance and room for improvement! You must know where you are. To be commercial you must have horses that are moving up. • culling rate be very strict. Removal of inferior animals from breeding stock -if you do not provide the proper environment, it does not matter what sort of genetic background a horse has, he wont live up to it -If you have a horse with poor poor genetics, it doesn’t matter what you give him, he will not be better than his dam/stally. Three equine familes 1.horse 32 chromosomes 2.ass/donkey 31 pairs of chromosomes 3.zebra 16;23;22 all will interbreed and produce offspring. Why are the babies sterile extra chromosome! 31 pairs and 1 extra. Because they do not have a complete chromosomal compliment. 50/50 genes from dam and sire. 50% related to FULL brothers and FULL sisters. Only half of the same genes. Full siblings can go onto very different things twins basically full siblings that happen o be born a the same time, NOT full genetic matches Most genetic disorders are recessive, and dominant genes can mask this. That is why often times in-breeding will bring out these genetic disorders Terms • Homozyous two dominant or two recessive • Heterozygous one dominant one recessive
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