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November 16 Notes.docx

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Francois Larose

Why Monogamous Marriages? - associated with wage labour ● both men and women can work ● taxes and social safety net ● benefit of having multiple spouses is not really there ● usually the only form of marriage allowed (usually a part of religious belief or the law) - associated with balanced sex ratio - in societies with monogamy, there are no obvious benefits to having multiple spouses. ● more than one spouse means more money but more money means more taxes ● doesn't mean there would be no benefit at all but the benefits are a lot less obvious or given MARITAL EXCHANGES ECONOMIC TRANSACTIONS that will occur between the familes that get married. 1. BRIDESERVICE 2. BRIDE PRICE 3. DOWRY 4. GIFT EXCHANGE *the loss of a worker and future generations of workers needs to be compensated for. BRIDESERVICE - in exchange for the loss of the daughter, the future husband will provide a service for the bride's family. ● in societies where there is little material goods (like foragers) so instead of material payment, so the groom works for the bride's family for a certain ammount of time. ● groom does what men normally do. among foragers they go and hunt, build, etc. ● it is like a trial marriage. if the man is not good at anything, they can call it off. the man has the same vantage point on the woman. if she is a bad worker as well, he can break it off and go back to his own village. ● this is the most common form of marital exchange among foragers or any society with very limited material goods (some horticulturalists and pastoralists) BRIDEPRICE / BRIDE WEALTH - in exchange for a spouse, the future husband and his family will compensate the bride's family with material goods. ● the price is negotiated between the two families ● among pastoralists, it is usually in livestock ● if the bride's family is wealthier, they want a higher brideprice. the higher price confirms to them that the family she is going to is also very well-off ● if you have only one daughter as opposed to five, you might want some more money since it costs money to marry off each of your sons. ● very common among horticulturalists and pastoralists and food producers in general. ^those two are to compensate the woman's family for the loss of the woman DOWRY - the bride will receive part of her inheritance from her family in advance to contribute to her new family with her new husband ● dowry can exist on its own or alongside the brideprice. ● daughters with bigger dowries get more potential suitors (and parents might get a brideprice in return for this dowry) ● if you can't give your daughters a large dowrie, that becomes part of the marriage deal so they aren't as wanted and the daughter may become a drain on their family, staying with their family forever because they are never sought after for marriage. ● poor parents may invest all their money in just one daughter's dowry to at least get rid of one of them and maybe make an alliance with a good family. people go bankrupt over this stuff. ● in a society with only the dowry system, do you want to have lots of daughters? ● in societies where you only have brideprice, you want daughters. in dowry systems, daughters can bankrupt you. ● common amongst food producers. GIFT EXCHANGE 2 forms... - one form of gift exchange involves friends and relatives giving gifts to the bride and groom. ● expectation that when couple gets married they will live on their own so we help them start their life. ● this is commonly practiced here. - another form is the exchange of gifts between the families of the bride and gro
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