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November 21 notes.docx

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Francois Larose

POLITICAL SYSTEMS AND SOCIAL ORGANIZATION SOCIAL GROUPINGS LIKE KINSHIP AND MARRIAGE ARE USED TO SOLVE BASIC PROBLEMS WHEN NECESSARY, OTHER GROUPINGS ARE FORMED TO SOLVE SOCIAL PROBLEMS - ALL SOCIETIES HAVE HAD TO SOLVE CERTAIN BASIC PROBLEMS: HOW DO WE FIND FOOD HOW DO WE INTERACT WITH EACH OTHER TWO FUNCTIONS OF POLITICAL SYSTEMS 1. TO MAKE DECISIONS ON BEHALF OF THE PEOPLE 2. TO EXERCISE A FORM OF SOCIAL CONTROL KEY TERMS: POWER: the ability to bring about results two bases for power: AUTHORITY - the ability to take action through an ASCRIBED STATUS (power given to you: doctor, elected leaders) INFLUENCE - the ability to achieve a desired end by exerting social or moral pressure. Comes more often from an ACHIEVED STATUS (status gained by things that you do) *power is either given to you or it is something you achieve on your own. WHAT IS POLITICAL ANTHROPOLOGY POWER: ● who has it ● what are the limits of that power ● degrees of power ● bases of power ● political vs. religious power ● forms of govt ● social conflict ● social control ● law ● morality POWER CAN COME FROM: ● election ● religious status ● merit SOCIAL STRATIFICATION access to power can be influenced by: ● AGE ● GENDER ● SOCIOECONOMIC CLASS ● OCCUPATION ● PERSONAL REPUTATION ● ASCRIBED STATUS ● ACHIEVED STATUS WHY DO CHILDREN AND OLD PEOPLE LOSE POWER TO ADULTS? - in our society: ADULTS spend the money. children and the elderly, not as much, so they lose political power - in other societies not based on the market place, when your children grow up and you don't have to look after them, you begin to look after the society as a whole. The Elderly have a lot of political power. - in a society that changes quickly, old people are thought to have an outdated way of thinking TYPES OF POLITICAL ORGANIZATIONS BANDS & TRIBES - informal leadership (influence) CHIEFDOMS & STATES - formal leadership (authority) - chiefdoms, you can TAKE this power - most states, it is given to you WHY ARE RULES OBEYED? A) SOME ARE SELF-ENFORCING DUDE TO THEIR PRACTICAL UTILITY. ● ie. you stop at red lights. you usually don't stop because of the traffic ticket, you stop because you don't want to die. it just makes sense. B) WE ARE AFRAID OF PUBLIC RIDICULE ● ie. teenagers are very concerned by what their friends think so they're friends' opinions become the law of the land. ● there are people who spend their entire lives worried about what others think of them ● we are not necessarily talking about breaking the law, we are talking about norms C) FOLLOWING THE RULES BRINGS MORE REWA
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