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October 26 Notes.docx

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Francois Larose

Anthro Lecture Notes, October 26 EMERGENCE OF COMPLEX SOCIETIES how did we arrive at these systems? DIFFERENT IDEAS: 1. MARXISM: internal conflicts for resources. Use of coersion. ● some individual gains the means of production ● people realize they are being treated unfairly ● you pay some of the people extra to keep the people in line (coersion) ● when this stops working, you bring in RELIGION to teach people to accept their god-given role. *not that this is when we invented religion, but this is when religion began being used in this manipulative way. 2. WARFARE: external conflict for resources. ● arable land is scarce so it must be won from others. ● the people who organize these raids and risk their life get the spoils ● this gives rise to standing armies, creating greater complexities in sustenance, administration, and task specialization. ● the spoils must be managed. 3. HYDRAULIC: need to co-operate ● managing large irrigation system ● administration necessary to raise the quality of life for all ● efficiency and task specialization are selected for writ large. 4. RELIGION: need to manage large projects (temples) ● in places like central america where there were a lot of natural disasters, it was believed that the Gods controlled these things and they must be placated. ● temples must be built to make offerings to hold off the gods. ● cities grow around these temples, creating all the features of civilization ● here the religious leaders had all the power. ● we need labour to build the temple. ● theocracy. 5. LONG DISTANCE TRADE: administration of trade ● the more you become reliant on trade, the more administrators and security you need. ● the more sedentary you become, the more reliant you become on trade. ● the rest that follows is the same story: inequalities arise, etc. Archaeologists are not looking for one size fits all answer for the rise of civilization. Different civs have different reasons or varieties of reasons to turn into states. A large part of this is just people PERSUADING other people to do certain things, this is difficult to find or prove with archaeology though. +++++++THIS CONCLUDES THE LECTURES ON PRE-HISTORY++++++ CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY CULTURE & THE ANTHROPOLOGIST - for a long time we believed culture set us apart from animals. early definitions emphasise culture as a uniquely human attribute. -
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