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October 29 notes.docx

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Francois Larose

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Anthropology 101, Lecture Notes, October 29 norms, values, ... CLASSIFICATIONS OF REALITY are shared ideas about what kinds of things and people exist. Classifications of Reality allow for categories of things. *in our culture, horses and dogs are pets. In other cultures it is food. Some cultures believe in ghosts and spirits, good luck / bad luck etc. WORLDVIEWS are a people's way of interpreting the universe and how they themsevles fit into it. * ie. religious beliefs, the role humans play in nature (we tend to believe we are the keepers of the earth, other people's see humans as any other animal). CULTURE CHANGE culture is always changing. (we often only think of industrial societies as not changing but that isn't true) - the prime mover of culture change is TASK SPECIALIZATION. since task specialization, the pace of change has increased. CAUSES OF CHANGE ● forces within society ● contact between societies ● changes in the environment INTERNAL MECHANISMS OF CHANGE (these are universal) 1. INNOVATION ● THE DISCOVERY OF NEW PRINCIPLES ● fire, stone tools, the wheel, etc 2. SECONDARY INNOVATION AKA INVENTION AKA DISCOVERY ● NEW APPLICATIONS OF KNOWN PRINCIPLES ● cart, etc, uses of the innovations *an invention is something deliberate, as opposed to a discovery or an innovation which are happened upon without intent. 3. DIFFUSION ● THE SPREAD OF CUSTOMS OR PRACTICES FROM ONE CULTURE TO ANOTHER ● HAPPENS THROUGH DIRECT CONTACT OR STIMULUS DIFFUSION *DIRECT CONTACT is when a culture comes into contact with another culture and decide to borrow something **STIMULUS DIFFUSION is when a culture hears about an idea from another culture and invent it from themselves based on the idea. Not borrowing exactly the way it is. 4. CULTURAL LOSS ● THE REPLACEMENT OR ABANDONMENT OF CUSTOMS OR PRACTICES EXTERNAL CAUSES OF CHANGE 1. ACCULTURATION ● MAJOR CULTURE CHANGES THAT PEOPLE ARE FORCED TO MAKE AS A RESULT OF FIRSTHAND CONTACT WITH ANOTHER SOCIETY. ● A FORM OF COLONIALIZATION ● FORCE PEOPLE TO CHANGE THEIR WAY OF LIFE BUT DON'T NECESSARILY MAKE THEM EQUAL 2. MIGRATION ● RELOCATION DUE TO ECONOMIC, POLITICAL, SOCIAL OR ENVIRONMENTAL REASONS ● FORCED MIGRATION ● brings people into contact with new ideas since people migrate but bring their culture with them where they go. REACTIONS TO CHANGE 1. SYNCRETISM ● IN ACCULTURATIONS, THE BLENDING OF INDIGENOUS TRAITS TO FORM A NEW SYSTEM ● this often happens with RELIGION. it is the last thing people want to abandon. it takes on some features of the acculturators but remains the original religion at its core (think mesoamerica) ● ie, christianity brought to the americas turned into a pidgin blend of christianity with their native religion. 2. TRANSCULTURATION ● WHEN INDIVIDUALS WILLINGLY ASSIMILATE THEMSELVES INTO A NEW CULTURE ● people completely abandon their culture ● sometimes this just a more peaceful and stoic response that people willingly choose ANTHROPOLOGY AND LANGUAGE - the key to culture WHY STUDY LANGUAGE? - to understand what makes human language different from other forms of communication ● not just learning a language, but studying a language. ● we used to think only humans had SYMBOLIC communication but some animals have this too. ● we used to think we were the only ones who could lie or decieve one another but some animals do this too. - to understand the origins and development of language (HISTORICAL LINGUISTICS) - to understand cultures (SOCIOLINGUISTICS) ● not just what words mean in different language, but what they mean for the speakers. ● syntax, slang, written aspects - to understand the relationship between language and culture. ● SAPIR-WHORF hypothesis. HUMAN LANGUAGE UNIVERSALS Definition: A SYSTEM OF COMMUNICATION USING SOUNDS PUT TOGETHER IN MEANINGFUL WAYS ACCORDING TO CERTAIN RULES. WHAT MAKES HUMAN LANGUAGE DIFFERENT THAN ANIMAL LANGUAGE? 1. MULTIMEDIA POTENTIAL - ALL HUMAN LANGUAGES USE VARIOUS MEDIA TO COMMUNICATE ● spoken ● signed ● touch ● written ● smell 2. ARBITRARINESS / CONVENTIONALITY - ALL LANGUAGES RELY ON ARBITRARY SYMBOLS AGREED UPON. ● if i am the only one who understands what i am saying, i am not communicating. ● any sound can mean anything if we all agree. ● ALL LANGUAGES USE A LIMITED NUMBER OF DISCRETE AND RECOMBINABLE ELEMENTS (SOUNS) TO MAKE SWORDS AND SENTENCES. 3. PRODUCTIVITY / CREATIVITY - ALL LANGUAGES USE SYNTAX RULES TO CREATE AN INFINITE NUMBER OF SENTENCES. ● if we are all given a 1000 words to write an essay with, we can all write very different essays because words mean different things in different orders. 4. DISPLACEMENT - ALL ANGUAGES ARE ABLE TO COMMUNICATE ABOUT OBJECTS, IDEAS, PEOPLE AND THINGS THAT ARE REMOTE IN SPACE AND TIME. ● you can talk about things that aren't here ● you can talk about things in the past or future. WHAT MAKES HUMAN LANGUAGES DIFFERENT FROM ONE ANOTHER? 1. PHONOLOGY - LANGUAGES DIFFER IN THE SOUNDS THEY USE ● some languages don't have the "th" sound like english ● some languages don't distinguish between p and b, even though they hear the different sounds, they have no separate meaning. 2. MORPHOLOGY - LANGUAGES DI
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