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October 1 Notes.docx

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Francois Larose

Anthropology Lecture Notes, October 1st OTHER ABSOLUTE METHODS Dendrochronology - based on growth of tree rings (similar to varves, remember). You match the samples in Reconstructed Master Sequence (some of these go back 2000 years) by patching together the ring sizes between artifacts. can't be used everywhere: has to be a place where the woods are kept relatively dry so they are preserved, doesn't work in tropics cause there are no seasons. look these up: Calendrical Dating Thermoluminescence - good for things that have been burnt in fire like pottery Uranium Series Dating - some of them don't go beyond 2 million years. THESEANALYSESARE EXPENSIVE. etc. CONTEXT is crucial in Archaeology. Not just finding things. It is what is found in relation to other things, piecing together what exactly happened. ---------------------------------this ends the section for the midterm on friday---------------------------------- exam: 50% on lecture, 50% on test. 50 multiple choice questions. generally no questions about names of researchers except in the history of the concept of evolution. focus is on concepts, not people. for friday, YOU NEED APENCILANDAN ERASERAND YOU NEED TO KNOW YOUR STUDENT ID (1263090). It is in this room. Read what is posted on the course website. ++++++++++++++++++++++++from here on for next midterm+++++++++++++++++++++++ +++ HUMAN EVOLUTION - the first group of primates to stand up and walk on two feet are our first human ancestors (hominid). We are the only hominid group extant. But we have extinct ancestors. WHAT MAKES AHUMAN ANCEST IS BIPEDALISM Trends in Hominid Evolution 1 We are looking for the first evidence of a species who can walk upright habitually as their normal mode of locomotion 2 Agradual increase in body size. The first bipedal incesters are only 3 and half feet tall or so. 3 Gradual reduction in sexual dimorphism. female and male body height/weight becoming more equivocal. 4 increase in the size of the brain compared to body size. 2.5 million years ago this begins. 5 reduced facial prognathism - this kind of pulling-forward of the lower face. facial prognathism refers to this kind of muzzle that primates have. 6 reduced supraorbital torus - means above-the-eye-orbits. it is that thick ridge of bone above the eye sockets. over time these great bony ridges are constantly reduced. 7 incisors and canines becoming smaller compared to the premolars and molars. in apes it is the other way around. starting around 5 or 6 million years ago, this gradual reversal began (front teeth gettings maller, back teeth getting larger in comparison). 8 increased dependence on tools for survival. stone tools, ability to make fire. the earliest species we call homo are the ones that we believe used tools. BECOMING HUMANS How do we know species are bipedal? Why did we become bipedal? When did we become bipedal? *the holy gra
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