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October 10 Notes.docx

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University of Alberta
Francois Larose

ANTHROPOLOGY LECTURE OCTOBER 10th/2012 ****The Paranthropus Line 2.5-1.3 MYA aka ROBUSTAUSTRALOPITHECINES - different genus name thanAustralopithecines because they did go extinct and do not become humans: Para-anthro - genus name is actually PARANTHROPUS, PARANTHROPUSAETHIOPICUS 2.5-2.3 MYA PANATHROPUS BOISEI 2.3-1.3 MYA PARANTHROPUS ROBUSTUS 2.0-1.5 MYA What makes Paranthropus (or as they were formerly known, Robust A.'s) Paranthropus? - adaptation to a very different diet. - more robustly built 1.1m to 1.5m - larger brain size (500-550cc), but not larger in comparison to body size. - molars are very very large - very large jaw, - very large supraorbital torus/tori (this is the bone ridge above the eyes) - presence of a sagittal crest - pneumatized skull (air pockets inside the bone) (like sinuses in modern man) ^these last four features we recognize in a species alive today but para aren't their ancestors. SAGITTAL CREST - for muscle attachments. the very big jaws are present and suggest they eat a lot of food that is very difficult to chew. - in humans you can feel the chewing muscles go just above the ears. in species that need more muscle to chew, the muscles go further and further up the skull until the skull needs to produce a ridge of bone to attach the muscles to. Humans have a crest like this on their femurs. So here is what we include: - adapted to a diet made of coarse vegetation (grinding teeth). tough to chew. - much more pronounced sexually dimorphic than australopithecines. males nearly twice the weight of women. - very similar to gorillas today but no where near that size. - POSSIBLE GORILLA BEHAVIOUR?? probably. - extinction may be due to a specialized diet. species with specialized diets are much more prone to extinction. Australopithecines have a very varied diet. - BUT THESEARE NOT THEANCESTORS OF GORILLAS, gorillas had already evolved and were contemporaries with Paranthropus. THE HABILINES 2.4-1.6 MYA - HOMO HABILIS - HOMO RUDOLFENSIS still debated whether these are the same species or two separate species. these two are very similar. they have minor differences. it is very difficult to tell. both found in east africa. the difference between the two is that RUDOLFENSIS has a slightly larger brain. - clearly a transitional form from theAustralopithecines that came before. Post cranial they are the same as Austra but they are changing above the neck. - Rudolfensis is bigger than Habilis - Homo Rudolfensis was found in Kenya - Homo Habilis was found in Tanzania Differences from Austras - LARGER BRAINS (600-800cc), brain sized increased 200 cc's in only 3 or 400 000 years compared to the 2 million years it took austras to grow the same amount - ROUNDER SKULL (more human like) - SMALLER TEETH (more human like) - DENTALARCADE MORE PARABOLIC - LESS FACIAL PROGNATHISM - POST CRANIAL IS IDENTICALTOAUSTRALOPITHECINES HABILINE BEHAVIOURS - they were found in the same area where we found the first evidence of stone tools. this is why they called them HOMO HABILUS, meaning handiman. TODAY we are not quite sure of that. The oldest stone tools we have (
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