ANTHROPOLOGY LECTURE OCTOBER 10th/2012
****The Paranthropus Line 2.5-1.3 MYA
- different genus name thanAustralopithecines because they did go extinct and do not become
- genus name is actually PARANTHROPUS,
PARANTHROPUSAETHIOPICUS 2.5-2.3 MYA
PANATHROPUS BOISEI 2.3-1.3 MYA
PARANTHROPUS ROBUSTUS 2.0-1.5 MYA
What makes Paranthropus (or as they were formerly known, Robust A.'s) Paranthropus?
- adaptation to a very different diet.
- more robustly built 1.1m to 1.5m
- larger brain size (500-550cc), but not larger in comparison to body size.
- molars are very very large
- very large jaw,
- very large supraorbital torus/tori (this is the bone ridge above the eyes)
- presence of a sagittal crest
- pneumatized skull (air pockets inside the bone) (like sinuses in modern man)
^these last four features we recognize in a species alive today but para aren't their ancestors.
- for muscle attachments. the very big jaws are present and suggest they eat a lot of food that is
very difficult to chew.
- in humans you can feel the chewing muscles go just above the ears. in species that need more
muscle to chew, the muscles go further and further up the skull until the skull needs to produce a
ridge of bone to attach the muscles to. Humans have a crest like this on their femurs.
So here is what we include:
- adapted to a diet made of coarse vegetation (grinding teeth). tough to chew.
- much more pronounced sexually dimorphic than australopithecines. males nearly twice the
weight of women.
- very similar to gorillas today but no where near that size.
- POSSIBLE GORILLA BEHAVIOUR?? probably.
- extinction may be due to a specialized diet. species with specialized diets are much more prone
to extinction. Australopithecines have a very varied diet.
- BUT THESEARE NOT THEANCESTORS OF GORILLAS, gorillas had already evolved and
were contemporaries with Paranthropus. THE HABILINES 2.4-1.6 MYA
- HOMO HABILIS
- HOMO RUDOLFENSIS
still debated whether these are the same species or two separate species. these two are very
similar. they have minor differences. it is very difficult to tell. both found in east africa. the
difference between the two is that RUDOLFENSIS has a slightly larger brain.
- clearly a transitional form from theAustralopithecines that came before. Post cranial they are
the same as Austra but they are changing above the neck.
- Rudolfensis is bigger than Habilis
- Homo Rudolfensis was found in Kenya
- Homo Habilis was found in Tanzania
Differences from Austras
- LARGER BRAINS (600-800cc), brain sized increased 200 cc's in only 3 or 400 000 years
compared to the 2 million years it took austras to grow the same amount
- ROUNDER SKULL (more human like)
- SMALLER TEETH (more human like)
- DENTALARCADE MORE PARABOLIC
- LESS FACIAL PROGNATHISM
- POST CRANIAL IS IDENTICALTOAUSTRALOPITHECINES
- they were found in the same area where we found the first evidence of stone tools. this is why
they called them HOMO HABILUS, meaning handiman. TODAY we are not quite sure of that.
The oldest stone tools we have (