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ANTHR110 (32)

Full Semester of Lecture notes, some summaries of readings

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Brent Hammer

Anthropology 110 Gender Age and Culture Biology Gender and Human Evolution Coattails theory traits are selected for in men and women survive by clinging to their coattailsStudies have shown that female humans and animals are not born with a maternal instinct it is learned In Brazil some mothers will purposefully neglect children who seem unlikely to surviveAnimal Models and Gender Sexual selectionthere is a range in the power that females when discriminating between different matesThe Role of Women in Human Evolution It has been suggested that meat was not actually a part of the human diet in the Paleolithic phase or most of the meat was obtained by scavengingFemales may have been at the centre of the community in the Paleolithic phase with males being more willing to share their resources with those who shared with them in their youth such as their mother and sistersGender and Prehistory There may be hundreds of menstrual houses that remain unidentified due to male archaeologists being uncomfortable addressing the topicThere is no historical or archaeologist evidence that women have ever completely dominated men in a society although there are written records documenting Sumer and Mayan women holding positions of great powerWarriors and Rulers Royal Women of the Classic Maya Women would groom their young sons for the throneIs Female to Male as Nature is to Culture Even though Taoism gives the illusion of giving both sexes equal weight China is still a patriarchal system The crow allow women equal access to roles in celebrations but force them to ride inferior horses and avoid the infirm while they are menstruatingWoman the Hunter The Agta In the Agta tribe women hunt and trade although there is a degree of variation from province to province Women may hunt with a bow and arrow a machete or packs of dogs depending on the season The Agta live in tribes consisting of several related nuclear families Children are cared for by relatives such as grandparents All members of the tribe participate in fishing Bridestobe are partially chosen for their knowledge and aptitude at collecting jungle plant foods Trade partners are called ibay Women have equality with men because they have similar authority in decision making Neither male nor female children have much choice in who they marry it is arranged by parents Extramarital sex is permitted but it is often difficult to find partners who are not relatives Women space out their children using herbal concoctions Divorce and polygamy are permitted The Named and the Nameless Gender and Person in Chinese SocietyMen typically acquire four or five games throughout their lives whereas women are essentially nameless and are often called by their status or age Ming the first name that a child is given Chinese names are perceived to actually do things such as healing or warding off spirits Tzu the name a man acquires when he marriesGender Household and Kinship Uxorilocal marriages may become the norm in China due to its one child policyMatrifocality Power and Gender Relations in Jamaica There are two theories for the prevalence of matrifocal families in Jamaica one is that it is the slave owners were unwilling to separate motherchild dyads and the other is that it is the traditional African systemSeptember 13 2011 Sexual Dimorphism The physical difference between males and females Paleoanthropology The study of old humans its possible to determine the sex of skeletons whether theyve given birth and their level of nutrition Primatology The study of primates Archaeology The study of ancient people by excavation of ancient cities and villages attempts to reconstruct ancient societiesPalaeoanthropological Theories Male Bondingplanning and sharing of the hunt Male Aggressioncompetition for females Male StrengthMens superior strength and larger size made them superior Their increased speed also made them the better choice for hunters Womens childbearinglonger care process required for children therefore less mobile and unable to participate in hunt due to risks involved Male ExpendableWomen of childbearing age are more valuable to the group since ultimately only several men are required for the survival of the group Primatological Explanations 1 Mating Patterns and Dominanceboth natural and sexual selection at play there is no single animal model for the origin of human sex roles 2 Loss of Estrus usually only once or twice a year in animals being in heat accompanied by outward physical characteristics human females have experienced a loss of estrusonly once a month and with no outward physical characteristics 3 Dimorphism and Dominance a decrease in sexual dimorphism in humansthe differences between the two sexes are becoming less pronounced friendly more sociable males tend to be smaller preferred by females leading to a decrease in the size of males4 Aggression in Different Patterns Females also display aggression Male aggression often occurs quickly in a facetoface situation and involving severe gashing wounds Female aggression was more prolonged with patterns lasting for months lots of sharp punctures but few gashing wounds5 Capacity to Learn
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