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Notes on sites and artifacts

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Raymond Leblanc

Thomas Jefferson • Conducted the “first scientific excavation” in Virginia in 1784 • Dug across a Native American burial mound using stratigraphy Late 19th century to WW1 Archaeology became more systematic and you could now have a job as an archeologist Also saw sponsorship, funded by universities, museums Also became taught in university spacial or geographic dispersion of artifacts The first classification schemes came to be Henry Holmes: developed classification for pottery and therefore stone tools, worked at the smithsonian Archaeology became associated with anthropology in North Am Ww1 to WW2 More focus to the temporal notions of archeology Looking at the distribution of materials and artifacts through out time, creating archeological timelines Time and space They looked at where things came from- stratigraphy- Relative dating Also looked at Seriation- by Petrie- based on the popularity of objects through time, when something is ▯ invented it becomes very popular and widespread then fade away 1940-1960 Classification continues Historical reconstruction- figure out and flesh out the past Radiocarbon dating- 1960 aka C14 dating Chronometric dating Became multidisciplinary- first addition was zoology making zooarcheaology Geology and geomorphology came to be- understanding the sediments surrounding the artifacts Botany and paleobotany Archaeometry Louis Binford- published a paper, manifesto of the new archaeology or the processual school, he wanted to ▯ know why? Why did cultures change, before you dig a site figure out why, what questions are you ▯ answering? David Clarke- Published ‘Analytical Anthropology’ 1980s Culture and history continued, and continued to be refined Experimental replicating- replicate stone tools to understand how they had been created, replicate other stuff ▯ too Site formation-Micheal Schiffer, how did geological processes affect the artifacts Louis Binford- Believed it was a frozen past Micheal Schiffer- It had been changed, humans, animals even the earth modify the site Middle Range theory- Link what is seen with the artifacts with what goes on today, used experimental work Ethnoachaeology- Schiffer lived with the Nunamiut, studied where the bones went what created the ▯ signatures for behavior, example: how the bones are displaced after an animal is butchered. Computer Applications and mathematical approaches G. Cowgill- looked at the underlying programs and stats from the computers and declared the factor analyse ▯ would be misused Underwater archaeology Cultural Resource management- an attempt to manage the destruction of archaeological sites due to modern life Sept 14th 2011 Cumulative destruction Ian Hodder- questioned the old ways, started the post-processual school of thought, frequently when they ▯ looked at digs Archaeologist seemed to act as though societies acted and lived in isolation, Hodder ▯ began to focus on the wider spectrum and that societies interacted each other, data is a social ideal ▯ (you see things as data depending on the social beliefs you are raised with) Create a history for those who did not have written history 3 Goals ▯ Cultural History(what, when and where) ▯ Cultural reconstruction(what did they look like, what did they do ect) ▯ Cultural Process(why did cultures change in the past) Chronology- who came first Use these to create archaeologically defined sequences of the past Stratified sites(multi layers) Diagnostic Cultural reconstruction Fleshes out the framework Lifeways- how they fed them selves, what did the they eat Zooaraeologists- examine animal bones, this tells us about seasonality, tools, diet, and conditions of bones say something too(paleoeconomy) Post molds- what’s left by housing poles Sept19th Learn about the community ▯ Individual households Settlment pattern ▯ Micro ▯ Meso-settlements and community ▯ Macro- distribution of sites across area Temporal framework Look at the lives of the lifeforms that lived Arctic Small Tool tsad- ASTt AD 1200 Inuit people moved arcoss the arctic in Umiaks (large boats) Metoric iron James Bell-better and better THEORIES about what happened in the past Framework ▯ Problem formulation ▯ Knowledge gap ▯ Scope of your problem ▯ Scale of the problem Geological Formations/deposits Ancient sites are on ancient landforms Research design- to explain how you are going to solve that problem ▯ What’s the theory, the procedures, plans for dating, ect ▯ Logistics ▯ Conservations ▯ Location ▯ Techniques for finding sites ▯ Permission-in canada the local first nation ▯ Bakshish Analysis/Description ▯ Curation ▯ Analysis-specialists Projectile points ▯ Arrowheads ▯ Spear points(many are made of stone, though there is ones made of bone or metal)
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