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ANTHR206 Lecture Notes - Ian Hodder, Underwater Archaeology, Radiocarbon Dating

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Raymond Leblanc

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Thomas Jefferson
Conducted the “first scientific excavation” in Virginia in 1784
Dug across a Native American burial mound using stratigraphy
Late 19th century to WW1
Archaeology became more systematic and you could now have a job as an archeologist
Also saw sponsorship, funded by universities, museums
Also became taught in university
spacial or geographic dispersion of artifacts
The first classification schemes came to be
Henry Holmes: developed classification for pottery and therefore stone tools, worked at the smithsonian
Archaeology became associated with anthropology in North Am
Ww1 to WW2
More focus to the temporal notions of archeology
Looking at the distribution of materials and artifacts through out time, creating archeological timelines
Time and space
They looked at where things came from- stratigraphy- Relative dating
Also looked at Seriation- by Petrie- based on the popularity of objects through time, when something is
!invented it becomes very popular and widespread then fade away
Classification continues
Historical reconstruction- figure out and flesh out the past
Radiocarbon dating- 1960 aka C14 dating
Chronometric dating
Became multidisciplinary- first addition was zoology making zooarcheaology
Geology and geomorphology came to be- understanding the sediments surrounding the artifacts
Botany and paleobotany
Louis Binford- published a paper, manifesto of the new archaeology or the processual school, he wanted
to !know why? Why did cultures change, before you dig a site figure out why, what questions are you
David Clarke- Published ‘Analytical Anthropology’
Culture and history continued, and continued to be refined
Experimental replicating- replicate stone tools to understand how they had been created, replicate other
stuff !too
Site formation-Micheal Schiffer, how did geological processes affect the artifacts
Louis Binford- Believed it was a frozen past
Micheal Schiffer- It had been changed, humans, animals even the earth modify the site
Middle Range theory- Link what is seen with the artifacts with what goes on today, used experimental
Ethnoachaeology- Schiffer lived with the Nunamiut, studied where the bones went what created the
!signatures for behavior, example: how the bones are displaced after an animal is butchered.
Computer Applications and mathematical approaches
G. Cowgill- looked at the underlying programs and stats from the computers and declared the factor
analyse !would be misused
Underwater archaeology
Cultural Resource management- an attempt to manage the destruction of archaeological sites due to
modern life
Sept 14th 2011
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