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Lecture 14

ANTHR207 Lecture Notes - Lecture 14: Secularism, Peyote, Metonymy

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Brent Hammer

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November 23 2015
World View
What is a World View?
An encompassing picture of reality created by members of a society
oLearned, shared, patterned, adaptive, symbolic
oAs a society we gain culture by sharing ideas with peoples
oShow up many times so that they can be patterned
oCan be modi"ed, or changed, through time and environment
oCan borrow elements from other societies
oSymbolic – symbols that stand for something else
The Role of Metaphor, Metonymy, and Symbol
oA form of thought and language that asserts a meaningful link between two expressions from di&erent
semantic domains
oConvey a deeper meaning into what someone is saying
oYou all need to understand the cultural context of it though if you don’t understand the role or context
of what is being said, the bigger picture will be missed
oIdioms may not resonate with the person you’re talking to because they might not have the cultural
context to make sense of it
oThe culturally de"ned relationships of the parts of a semantic domain to the domain as a whole and of
the whole to its parts
oSomething that stands for something else
oRepresent something other than what they are
oPeople devise symbols to remind themselves of their signi"cant insights and the connections between
those insights
oSummarizing Symbols: represent a whole semantic domain and invite us to consider the various
elements within it
oElaborating Symbols: represent only one element of a domain and invite us to place that element in
its wider semantic context
Key Metaphors
oFive element theory
o3rd century Chinese scienti"c thought
oWood, metal, "re, water, earth
oOver time, took on much more importance, took on everything in their universe
oEven included taste, numbers, musical notes, heavenly bodies in the skies, weather, colors, body parts
and human psychological functions
oSeen as very logical, could be seen to examine the past and the future
oKey Metaphor
oMetaphors that serve as the foundation of a world view
oi.e. capitalism could be a worldview
oSocietal Metaphor
oA worldview metaphor whose model for the world is within the social order
oOrganic Metaphor
oA worldview metaphor that applies the image of the body to social structures and institutions
oOrganic metaphor: apply the image of the living body to something, something that would also be
desirable to something else, body systems work well together, therefore, the human is healthy
oIf the parts are healthily, it creates harmony and everything is going to work well
oTechnological Metaphor
oA worldview metaphor that employs objects made by human beings as metaphorical predicates
oThe body is a machine
oComputer Metaphor
oA technological metaphor that employs computers as metaphorical predicates
oBegan in the 20th century
oUses technology to describe the human body, we all have system memory, we’re hardwired, etc.
oStarting to be used to describe human groups
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